Wednesday, 3 March 2010

Global warming

The definition of global warming:-
Gradual and continuous increase of the average temperature of the Earth's surface and oceans of water, leading to changes in climate may reach catastrophic levels with time.

What are the causes of global warming?

Climate scientists studied this phenomenon for decades, and have a thorough analysis of the courses and the natural phenomena that affect the formation change. Shows a result he can not explain the pattern and amount of increase in temperature of the Earth Based on these factors alone, and we must take the impact of greenhouse gases generated by the human mind, greenhouse emissions from fuel combustion contribute to the worsening problem of global warming.

What are greenhouse gases?

A group of greenhouse gases generated by the rights in different ways, mostly produced by burning fossil fuels, coal and oil in cars, factories and power plants. The carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to heat the Earth more important because of the large quantities resulting from the combustion processes. Followed by methane (CH4) resulting from the fermentation processes in the food industry, agriculture and waste dumps, and nitrous oxide gas (N2O) resulting from the industry, fertilizers, gases used in refrigeration and other industrial processes, and finally the removal of forests, which store a great deal of carbon dioxide gas if remained alive.
Vary in their ability of these gases on global warming than carbon dioxide. Valmithan nitrous oxide and refrigerant gases differ in their ability to store thermal energy for carbon dioxide, the equivalent of 20 and 300, and a few thousand times, respectively. However, due to the small quantities of other gases in the atmosphere, their impact on heating the earth remains limited compared with carbon dioxide.

How do greenhouse gases to warm the earth?

Penetrating rays of the sun visible, with a relatively short wavelength, atmosphere of the Earth, and is working to heat the surface and oceans. In contrast, infrared, long wave, which is emitted from the surface of Earth and its waters back They reflect mostly from the atmosphere back to Earth absorbs and thus gradually raise the temperature above the average on an ongoing basis. Greenhouse gases and play a key role in that disturbed the balance of natural uncommon for the temperature of the earth, and increased gradually heated.

What is the increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases since 1750? It is the countries responsible for that?.

The increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases since 1750 in the following order: -

Carbon dioxide( CO2) 36%.

Methane( CH4) 148%.

Gas nitrous oxide( N2O) 18%.

It is responsible for this first-class United States and Europe, the cradle of the industrial revolution and technological progress marched rapidly after World War II, and the discovery of the enormous resources of fossil fuels coal, oil and natural gas. Is equivalent to what launched the United States from greenhouse gases alone, the total launched by South America, Africa, the Middle East, Japan, and Asia. The United States launched in 2007 seven billion tons of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere of the Earth.
And is expected to equal the emissions of greenhouse gases for the second with the industrialized world by the year 2015, and is expected to increase after the thermal pollution resulting from the developing countries in large quantities. Are expected to increase the temperature of the earth and oceans between 4 C to 8 C by the year 2100, depending on the pace of global economic growth.

What are the effects of global warming?

Melting ice One result of global warming
The Earth is warming the length and breadth, and the evidence of this abound in multiple places:
* Ice melts in each place where, especially in the north and south poles. This will have a significant and serious implications for water in this planet, and rising sea levels and ocean, and will disappear as a result of a large number of islands scattered in the oceans, and coastal countries will lose an important part of its territory, which would reflect negatively on the productivity of the economic and tourist sites and cultural rights. It is expected sea level rise between 20 and 50 cm by the year 2100.

Evidence abound that the world is currently in between (2010 -2000) to climate change, and hotter temperatures not seen in the ground in its history. As a result:-

1 - increased flooding and destructive storms.
2 - Increased periods of prolonged drought, and breadth of the phenomenon of desertification, the spread of fires.
3 - catastrophic changes in environments of plant and animal populations, which will lead to the extinction of some species of animals like a bear, polar, for example, decreased numbers of some of the other penguins in Antarctica, which decreased in number from 32000 to 11000 in 30 years.
4 - the spread of epidemics and famine, widespread and dangerous.
5 - breeding of insects out of control and destruction of forests.
6 - the destruction of coral reefs and marine environments.
7 - predicting the demise of Arctic ice within (7-5) years.

What can we do?

To save our planet from a similar fate we have to do a variety of the most important actions:-

1-That the United Nations to develop binding agreements for all States, also tried at the Copenhagen conference which concluded in 2009-12-18, but failed because of differences between the advanced industrial countries and developing countries and the dominance of monopolies and capital on the policies of the participating countries.
2-Development of alternative sources of clean energy: as wind, sun, and the generation of electrical energy from water resources and dams.
3-Development of new technologies developed a highly efficient use of energy to become a pillar of the global economy.
4-Every State's obligation to maintain strict legislation on the environment and cleanliness at all levels.
5-The upbringing and education of generations to be on the high level of commitment to environmental conservation and maintenance.

Let us work together to save our beautiful planet and civilization of humanity

Solar energy

Solar energy:-
a source of inexhaustible energy, but it is up to us are scattered and need to be a modern technology (solar cells) for compilation and use of, a source of clean is not caused by any use of gas or products harmful to the environment as is the case in other fuels.
The definition of solar cells: - Transformers Voltazaviip convert sunlight directly into electricity, a semiconductor and sensitive scan and surrounded by front and rear cover conductor of electricity.

Benefited rights since the foot of the solar radiation energy directly in many applications drying crops and heating homes. Also used in other areas, have been burned Archimedes Rummani Navy in the war in 212 BC by focusing solar radiation on the vessels of the enemy by the hundreds of metal armors. In the Babylonian priests, the women were using verse gold polished mirrors to concentrate solar radiation to get a shot.
Has also been established in the early first century AD the current international terminal for irrigation, solar energy was mediated by working for five hours per day, near Cairo.
Man tried long ago to take advantage of solar energy exploitation, but as far as small and limited but the great development of technical and scientific progress reached by man opened up a new science in the field of solar energy utilization.

Solar energy conversion:-

Can convert solar energy into electrical energy and thermal energy through the photoelectric conversion mechanisms and the thermal conversion of solar energy, has been manufacturing many models of the solar cells can produce electricity in a scientific manner and is characterized by solar cells that it does not include moving parts or pieces, which do not consume fuel or air pollution and life is long and require little maintenance. Achieved the best use of this technology under the console application of solar radiation (solar module) without any optical concentrators, lenses and therefore can be installed on the roofs of buildings to serve in the production of electricity, efficiency is usually estimated at about 20%, while the rest can be utilized to provide heat for heating and water heating.
The applications of solar water heaters are the most prevalent in the area of the thermal conversion of solar energy. Followed by the most important solar dryers that are frequently used in drying some crops such as dates, as well as others can take advantage of the thermal energy to cook food.
The storage of solar energy research of the most important areas of development needed in the application of solar energy and spread of a wide range, where solar energy is available but it is not at hand and not free, real ones, the words on the equipment used to convert electromagnetic energy into electrical energy or heat, as well as storage if necessary.

Applications on the use of solar energy:-

1-Urban planning and architecture: the design of buildings based on the exploitation of solar energy so that it may hand the south for light and warmth.
2-Plant cultivation and horticulture: machinery used in the management of water pumping, crop drying and hatching chickens and drying chicken manure, greenhouses (glass).
3-Solar lighting: The use of natural sunlight from the most commonly used types of lighting throughout the ages.
4-Heat of the sun: The use of techniques that rely on the exploitation of heat from the sun to heat water and space heating and cooling and the process of generating heat.
5-Water treatment: solar distillation is used to make salt water, water, wheat fit for drinking.
6-Solar cooking: The solar cooker is a device that uses sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization. The types are divided into three categories: funds that traps heat and stoves, curved concentrators (Barrapolaaks) and stoves in the form of flat panels.
7-Heat treatment: The means to focus solar energy can provide heat treatment for industrial and commercial.
8-Electricity generation: You can convert sunlight directly into electricity using adapters Voltodoiip (PV) and the process of concentration of solar power (CSP) and many other experimental methods.
9-Solar-powered cars.

Methods of storing solar energy:-

Can not get on solar energy during the night. Thus, energy storage is necessary because modern energy systems need to be a source of energy is available all the time, the thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at temperatures useful for domestic purposes, either daily or throughout the season, is a variable-phase materials such as paraffin wax and Glauber's salt sources of thermal energy storage as well. These materials are not expensive and ready to use and can reach temperatures useful for domestic purposes (approximately 64 degrees Celsius), can store solar energy is very high temperatures using molten salts.