Sunday, 28 February 2010

Nano Technology

The definition of nanotechnology:-
Is a set of tools, techniques and applications concerning the manufacture of a particular structure and composition measurements using very small.

In 1986, a U.S. mathematician Eric Drexler, the actual founder of this science, a book called «-engined configuration», the extension of the ideas the basis for the information of «Nanotechnology». And which he also introduced major risks associated with it.
There is an agreement that in 1990 is the real beginning of the era of nanotechnology, in that year, researchers in the laboratory of one of the sub-electron giant international companies from making smaller Declaration in the world, used the 35 atom of the element xenon to write the name of the company with three letters on the interface headquarters branch in the Swiss capital.

Nanotechnology and its applications:-

Nano is one billionth of a meter, or 9-10 of the meter, and described the size of ten atoms Hirogen, or the rate of growth of a fingernail in one second, or high drop of water after flattening entirely on the surface area of one square meter, or one-tenth of the thickness class colored sunglasses. It should be noted that the presentation of a smaller boat on the Pentium processor is a Pentium 100 nm.
Computer extraordinary day at the Centers for research and development or in the large universities will just watch in the near future and will enable industry operations room full capsule (box) small, they are placed inside the patient's body to carry out the program, which programming process by which doctor the patient's condition, the areas of countless involving nanotechnology, and will change the lives of tens of thousands of times that the rights could change his life since the beginning of time and to this day. Content will become more science fiction fertility now, just a simple fantasies of a small child.

What can nanotechnology that works??

Nanotechnology able to possess the potential to increase the efficiency of energy consumption, and help clean up the environment, and solve major health problems, as it is able to increase production dramatically and manufacturing costs are very low, and the products of nanotechnology will be smaller.

What experts say about nanotechnology??

In 1999, winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry "Richard Smalley Richard Smalley" addressed to the United States Commission of the Council of Representatives on Nanotechnology under the theme: "The impact of nanotechnology on health, wealth, and people's lives" and said: "It will be at least equivalent to the combined effects of science microelectronics, medical imaging, computer-aided engineering and composition of synthetic chemical compounds developed during this century. "

Nanotechnology to change human life for the better:-

Term began (Nanotechnology) is spreading in the area of electronic industries, related to Informatics. If we examine the cards used in computers today, especially notebook found to be compressed to a large degree, The card, which does not exceed a few millimeters thick, as if we examined the cables and capacitors, weighing an estimated kilogram, we find that the weight does not exceed parts Almilli grams. The diminished size, and doubled the capacity and all thanks to the reduced thickness of the cables and pressure the volume of capacitors and circuit breakers, which has shortened distances, traveled by electrons, and earn computers, greater speed in the implementation of operations.

IBM technology to zoom:-

Research aimed at IBM in the area of miniaturization technology to design components and new atomic structures at the molecular level to improve the information technologies, in addition to discovering and understanding the scientific basis. Through the leadership development of miniaturization technology or nanotechnology, IBM scientists were able to conduct studies of such technologies on nano-level, technological dwarf. Specifically, the carbon tubes and mini-probe examination, which is produced from a microscope Atomic Energy offers the promise of empowerment to improve services and storage media, data, and a search in the nanoparticle applications in medicine, natural addition to the storage on the hard drive of your computer.
Experts say that nanotechnology is the human scientific revolution has a tremendous change with the features of life in all aspects of health, education, financial .. Etc., making life better, and helps to get rid of incurable diseases suffered by people over the centuries, nanotechnology will also work to improve methods of agricultural and industrial production and reduce costs in an unprecedented manner, which means more comfort and the end of trouble for a man of the times.
Scientists expect to become nanotechnology - technology in the near future an integral part of everyday medical practice, particularly in the field of drug delivery. However, we find Jennifer West warns that it will not happen in the near future she says: "We are still at a distance of several decades of the precision instruments that swim through our bodies to fight bacteria, viruses, and transformation of all human beings to the creatures just healthy."

Near-term uses of nanotechnology:-

● in the medical diagnosis and treatment.
● solar collector and take advantage of (photovoltaic).
● compounds contain the nanotubes .
● in the manufacture of paints and packaging .
● new models of computer memory and integrated circuits. Where there are potential uses for carbon nanotubes (Carbon Nanotubes) at:
● binaries link and transistors.
● speakers reference in mobile devices.
● increase the stiffness components.

Long-term uses of nanotechnology:-

● data storage capacities are immense.
● chips to store the video up to 1000 hours.
● the work of plastic sheeting used in construction are thin and very light for the windows, but with high hardness .


The definition of gold:-
Gold and Rare Earth is one of the precious metals in the world, is extracted from the mines and mountains, archaeological sites, but the search for costly, may be extracting a large rock the size of the room and we have not which only a few grams of pure gold.

Join Gold:-

Be a result of gold deposition of gases and liquids rising from below the surface, these gases and liquids rise in the direction of the surface through cracks in the earth's crust, there is a lot of gold in the rocks of which the crust and often found with metallic copper, lead and rare to find a piece of gold on a sufficient scale to enlarge despite that the large rocks of gold have been found in Australia in the late nineteenth century and there are deposits of gold in the veins of mineral and placer deposits, and is South Africa and the United States, Canada, Australia, China, the Philippines is the Countries main gold producer in the world.

As gold was widespread in many parts of the globe, in addition to the free existence in nature, and the price of hyperbole and use money in various corner of the world have become easier to learn to know other metals. The natural qualities had made him the minerals commonly known Vkther mentioned in the books and many hunters are looking for those engaged in it, interested in many of the chemical purification methods of these metals, gold purification are newly separated dust and silt and other impurities by strong water currents remove sand and alluvial minutes, and minutes remaining gold in place due to the high density of gold has been used mercury to dissolve gold without the sand and silt. Then finds the gold from the mercury by distilling the latter. As can be seen at the presentation of gold mining copper and silver. There are chemical methods of extracting gold, which draws as a way cyanide, or silver alloys dissolve in concentrated sulfuric acid, and purification of gold being nitric acid first, and then electrolysis.
He knew the gold and its value has emerged since ancient times metal composition more easily than any other metal. In addition to the easy availability of gold in its pure form. The beauty of gold and luster, and its resistance to corrosion of metals has made him unique in the arts and crafts together since ancient times, and given the relative scarcity, use gold as currency and the basis for international financial transactions. The unit used in the weight of gold equivalent ounce is 31.1 grams.

Gold Technologies:-

There are modern equipment to detect for gold where there is a specialized organ to detect gold and treasure under the ground-based direct image on the screen, determines the type and weight and depth to the target,These devices designed to detect high-value targets deep in the ground and is working on a system is very sensitive.

Common uses for gold:-

-Used as a reserve currency where he became the sole basis for the currencies of most countries of the world where securities can be converted into gold .
-Because gold is a good conductor of electricity Odhu high resistance to rust and corrosion, it has become of great importance in the manufacture of micro-electric circuits .
-If Ozept small amounts of gold and placed in glass or plastic panels, they prevent the passage of infrared and serve as a protective thermal effective .
-Gold Bthbath characterized by chemical, it is used in machines that operate in the atmosphere show rust and corrosion .
-Used potassium cyanide added to gold in gold plating process that are electrically .
-Gold is used in medicine because it is proven that it is compatible with the organs of the body of living. It is used in dentistry, and pharmaceutical packaging. Also used radioactive isotopes of gold in biological research in the treatment of cancer.
-Uses the bulk of the product in the gold coins and jewels.

In each stage of history, the gold metal was used as a means of trade, has also been used as a store of value, the gold represents the best form of protection against inflation and protects future profits.
Entered the gold in world markets and stock exchanges, as the London market and one of the oldest gold markets in the world and is the world's largest gold trading effectively.

The computer Technology

The computer is an electronic machine used to treat the input data for the device, by the CPU to obtain useful information, and is done by programs that are known to computer.

Multiple types of computers in the way they work and size in addition to speed. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room and consumed a similar capacity to consume a few hundred personal computers today, it is possible today to make computers and within the hour by taking energy from the battery time. Community looks to a personal computer - and his mobile; laptop - were symbolic of the information age; understanding of what most people think of when talking about the computer. In spite of this and more forms of computer use computers today are included. Embedded computers are small and simple devices commonly used to control other devices, for example, you can be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft, and robots, and digital cameras and toys,Can not say that the computer is the invention of itself because it was the product of a lot of innovations in scientific and mathematical applications.

Computer History:-

Has been codified abacus (abacus) as a primitive computer because it was like a calculator in the past. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement in the work of the existing forms of Alnolip using a sequence of cards punched like a program to weave complex forms. The result was that the Jacquard loom is not considered a real computer, but it was an important step in the development of modern digital computers. Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable computer, in the beginning of 1820, but due to a combination of the technical limits at the time and financial limitations, as well as the inability to solve the problem of reform is not good design, the device is not actually constructed in his life. Emerged a number of techniques that have proved useful later in computing, such as card punch and tube valve at the end of the nineteenth century, and automatic data processing of the large gradient using punch cards are made using machines scheduling and designed by Herman Hollerith.

A core, Computer Atanasoff-Berry 1937, secret British Colossus computer (1944) and had a limited capacity for programming, Harvard Mark I 1944 computer is included electromechanical lot and has a limited capacity for programming, based on the U.S. computer algorithms (1946 -- ENIAC) was the first electronic computer is for general purposes, that the designs driven computer pipeline valve were in use during the fifties of the twentieth century, but with time Turanzsturip been replaced by computers, which were smaller, faster and cheaper and more reliable, all allowing them to be produced on a commercial scale and in the sixties of the twentieth century. In the seventies of the twentieth century, helped choose the integrated circuit technology in the production of computers at a cost low enough to allow individuals to own a personal computer of the species currently known.

How do computers?

While the techniques used have changed dramatically in computers since the early electronic computers, multi-purpose Forties of the twentieth century, is still mostly uses the stored program architecture (called sometimes the structure of von Neumann). Able to get the computer to design truly universal and partially describes the structure of computers in four main sections:-Algorathim and Logic Unit ALU,Control Unit‏,Input /output I/O ‏,memory.

These parts connected by bundles of wires (called "vectors" BUS when the same package supports more than one data path) and is usually measured by a timer or clock (although other events could drive control circuit), and the operating system to collect the components of computer with each other. Where the commands and read data from memory or from the input and output, is to carry that out by the wizard. As well as decode the command, and feeding unit of account and the correct logic input according to the instructions, which tells the unit of account and logic operation to be carried out on these inputs and send the results back to memory or input devices and output, the counter Counter key components of the control system which monitors the address the current command, usually increase the value of the address in each time you execute the command only if the same is noted that the following command must be at another address (this allows the computer performs the same command in a recurrent), ranging from the eighties of the twentieth century, has become both The unit of account and logic and control unit (two communities are called central processing unit) (CPU) and the usual presence in the integrated circuit and one called the microprocessor.

The Programs:-

The software is simply a list of commands executed by the computer, and from these commands (instructions) between some of the commands of the few lead a simple task to the list of orders is more complex, which can contain tables of data. Many computer programs contain millions of orders, and many of these orders are executed repeatedly. The typical modern personal computer can execute about 3 billion is in the second. The computers did not gain their extraordinary through their ability to implement complex commands. But rather, they are millions of orders place by people who know the programmers.

There are also some more sophisticated systems that are used in large computers and computer-sensitive services, such as web and other systems is derived from a UNIX, such as RedHat (Red Hat) and Sun Solaris, and has evolved suitable for office use, providing graphical interfaces can sometimes superior to systems Microsoft Windows, providing the effects superior to those in Windows 7, as is the case in Ubuntu, have also been used in some UNIX systems for mobile systems, and systems reliability Taatmisahzh, where it can be kept running up to ten continuous years or more without any interruption, It is also not affected by the so-called viruses, and provide high performance even on machines vulnerable to some extent.

Types of computers:-

-Main frame computers: a computer with large storage capacity and high efficiency in the treatment of which is used in large enterprises such as the Chambers-governmental organizations, universities and major corporations, where the device is linked to the main group of subsidiary organs called terminals.
-Personal computers: the computers that we see in homes and offices.
-Computers hands: are small devices no bigger than the palm of the hand.
-PCs built: the computers found in many electronic devices and electrical for example, found in the cell cars and video equipment, aircraft and others.

Computer Components:-

CPU,Motherboard,RAM,HardDisk,Units entry and exit data.
There are other components are complementary to the work of a computer, such as:
Printer, scanner, audio equipment and video or multimedia.
In addition to hardware, the computer needs to be:
* Operating system is not a component of the computer and is one of the supplements.
* Programs are not components of the computer and is one of the supplements.

Types of computers:-

-Large computer.
-Computer average.
-Small computer.
-Home computer.
-Notebook computer.
-Handheld computers.