Sunday, 28 February 2010

The computer Technology

The computer is an electronic machine used to treat the input data for the device, by the CPU to obtain useful information, and is done by programs that are known to computer.

Multiple types of computers in the way they work and size in addition to speed. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room and consumed a similar capacity to consume a few hundred personal computers today, it is possible today to make computers and within the hour by taking energy from the battery time. Community looks to a personal computer - and his mobile; laptop - were symbolic of the information age; understanding of what most people think of when talking about the computer. In spite of this and more forms of computer use computers today are included. Embedded computers are small and simple devices commonly used to control other devices, for example, you can be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft, and robots, and digital cameras and toys,Can not say that the computer is the invention of itself because it was the product of a lot of innovations in scientific and mathematical applications.

Computer History:-

Has been codified abacus (abacus) as a primitive computer because it was like a calculator in the past. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement in the work of the existing forms of Alnolip using a sequence of cards punched like a program to weave complex forms. The result was that the Jacquard loom is not considered a real computer, but it was an important step in the development of modern digital computers. Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable computer, in the beginning of 1820, but due to a combination of the technical limits at the time and financial limitations, as well as the inability to solve the problem of reform is not good design, the device is not actually constructed in his life. Emerged a number of techniques that have proved useful later in computing, such as card punch and tube valve at the end of the nineteenth century, and automatic data processing of the large gradient using punch cards are made using machines scheduling and designed by Herman Hollerith.

A core, Computer Atanasoff-Berry 1937, secret British Colossus computer (1944) and had a limited capacity for programming, Harvard Mark I 1944 computer is included electromechanical lot and has a limited capacity for programming, based on the U.S. computer algorithms (1946 -- ENIAC) was the first electronic computer is for general purposes, that the designs driven computer pipeline valve were in use during the fifties of the twentieth century, but with time Turanzsturip been replaced by computers, which were smaller, faster and cheaper and more reliable, all allowing them to be produced on a commercial scale and in the sixties of the twentieth century. In the seventies of the twentieth century, helped choose the integrated circuit technology in the production of computers at a cost low enough to allow individuals to own a personal computer of the species currently known.

How do computers?

While the techniques used have changed dramatically in computers since the early electronic computers, multi-purpose Forties of the twentieth century, is still mostly uses the stored program architecture (called sometimes the structure of von Neumann). Able to get the computer to design truly universal and partially describes the structure of computers in four main sections:-Algorathim and Logic Unit ALU,Control Unit‏,Input /output I/O ‏,memory.

These parts connected by bundles of wires (called "vectors" BUS when the same package supports more than one data path) and is usually measured by a timer or clock (although other events could drive control circuit), and the operating system to collect the components of computer with each other. Where the commands and read data from memory or from the input and output, is to carry that out by the wizard. As well as decode the command, and feeding unit of account and the correct logic input according to the instructions, which tells the unit of account and logic operation to be carried out on these inputs and send the results back to memory or input devices and output, the counter Counter key components of the control system which monitors the address the current command, usually increase the value of the address in each time you execute the command only if the same is noted that the following command must be at another address (this allows the computer performs the same command in a recurrent), ranging from the eighties of the twentieth century, has become both The unit of account and logic and control unit (two communities are called central processing unit) (CPU) and the usual presence in the integrated circuit and one called the microprocessor.

The Programs:-

The software is simply a list of commands executed by the computer, and from these commands (instructions) between some of the commands of the few lead a simple task to the list of orders is more complex, which can contain tables of data. Many computer programs contain millions of orders, and many of these orders are executed repeatedly. The typical modern personal computer can execute about 3 billion is in the second. The computers did not gain their extraordinary through their ability to implement complex commands. But rather, they are millions of orders place by people who know the programmers.

There are also some more sophisticated systems that are used in large computers and computer-sensitive services, such as web and other systems is derived from a UNIX, such as RedHat (Red Hat) and Sun Solaris, and has evolved suitable for office use, providing graphical interfaces can sometimes superior to systems Microsoft Windows, providing the effects superior to those in Windows 7, as is the case in Ubuntu, have also been used in some UNIX systems for mobile systems, and systems reliability Taatmisahzh, where it can be kept running up to ten continuous years or more without any interruption, It is also not affected by the so-called viruses, and provide high performance even on machines vulnerable to some extent.

Types of computers:-

-Main frame computers: a computer with large storage capacity and high efficiency in the treatment of which is used in large enterprises such as the Chambers-governmental organizations, universities and major corporations, where the device is linked to the main group of subsidiary organs called terminals.
-Personal computers: the computers that we see in homes and offices.
-Computers hands: are small devices no bigger than the palm of the hand.
-PCs built: the computers found in many electronic devices and electrical for example, found in the cell cars and video equipment, aircraft and others.

Computer Components:-

CPU,Motherboard,RAM,HardDisk,Units entry and exit data.
There are other components are complementary to the work of a computer, such as:
Printer, scanner, audio equipment and video or multimedia.
In addition to hardware, the computer needs to be:
* Operating system is not a component of the computer and is one of the supplements.
* Programs are not components of the computer and is one of the supplements.

Types of computers:-

-Large computer.
-Computer average.
-Small computer.
-Home computer.
-Notebook computer.
-Handheld computers.