Sunday, 20 June 2010

Century technology atheist ten

Housekeeping distance is no longer a distant dream

If I remember you on your way to work that you forget to run the washing machine there is no problem, use your cell phone to send a message to the personal computer which converts it to the washing machine will operate, and if late in the work to become afraid to miss a football match task, broadcast on television, you can send an email to the PC telling him to run the video device and record the game.

These are just examples of a world run by the promise of modern technology scientists gaining a long time and experts say technology is achievable after a few years.

The problems facing the creators of this technology are many. Most wireless and electronics companies competing for a foothold in the future development of Internet usage in isolation from other companies, most of the methods that have been developed to enable electronic devices to connect to an unequal and there is no uniform standards to govern them.

Houses are built in the United States is now equipped with cables transmit information quickly, making it easy to use online home, terraces with Victorian style in London and designs of apartments in Berlin and Rome did not take into account in building technology applications century atheist century. Installation of a refrigerator connected to the Internet thing and connections underground thing quite different. The experts also say that it was illogical to expect the consumer to get rid of the existing hardware has between overnight and equip his home with modern equipment immediately connected to a single computer.

And partial solutions to the problem of connections is to use wireless technology. However, you will have to send the information through a single connection to the computer and the computer can then send the information home appliances wirelessly. This type of wireless communications is now deployed in offices, airports, restaurants and hotels. Some expect the spread in homes but others feel it is too expensive, "Everyone knows that wireless technology is the solution in the future." However, there are health concerns regarding the use of technology such as radio waves on the use of microwave ovens and mobile phones.

Saturday, 15 May 2010

Technologies Spyware

Heard a lot about the technology of espionage and exciting imaginary movies in a personal British spy fiction famous «James Bond 007», created by in 1953, the British author (Ian Fleming), but now IT is no longer spy call laughter, With the technological development astounding and growing that we are witnessing technology has become Spyware is a reality, and went to the advanced stages, and are capable of eavesdropping or filming or track any individual targeted by a number of programs «software», and electronic devices and digital, and can say that if the technology spying in the rapid development of the uncontrolled and, if misused, they may lead humanity to bid farewell to privacy forever.

Recently deployed commercially and online programs «Software» and spy and surveillance and monitoring of movements, voice, photo, and are able to your mobile phone to spy on you, may we read the news agencies, finally, during the month (March) the past, the company «KDDI», Japanese giant, has announced that researchers have developed a new technology for a mobile phone enables managers to spy on their employees and track their whereabouts and precise movements and activities of the walking, climbing stairs and cleaning, and then sends the information obtained to the headquarters of the company or organization interested in knowing such details.

Now, through technology and intelligence, advanced in its various forms and hidden and accuracy of finite, you can monitor and record all movements of personnel, you can now, for example during your absence from home to use this technology to monitor your kids inside or outside the home or monitor a babysitter or control couples without controls and without their knowledge.

Today can any U.S. citizen to know the price, which was sold by his neighbor's house by visiting the web sites, and anyone that looks closely at the backyards of the houses of wealthy people in the world via satellite sites on the Internet.

In the United States, is following more than 75% of employers are doing their staff during office hours, and the hardware specific follow-up record every keystroke on a keyboard computers for work, and recently raised giant Google Inc. of its new «Google Latitude» which allows property tracking Internet users to wirelessly according to the will of the user, of course, the service «Latitude» allows the user via computer or cell phone to inform his friends of his whereabouts, or deceiving them by suggesting his presence in non-place real-operate the service through the «Google Maps», which not only benefits in the field of social relations, even in cases of Search for missing people or victims of accidents .... etc.

In conclusion, with the rapidly evolving technology of espionage and proliferation of trade, it has become an urgent necessity for the issuance of controls for the users of the technology, laws and legislation, especially to protect the privacy of individuals, so do not say goodbye to privacy.

Sunday, 2 May 2010

Food Technology

Genetically Modified Food: -
are foods derived from genetically modified organisms, has introduced some changes to the DNA of genetically modified organisms through genetic engineering.

Introduced genetically modified food for the first time in the market in the early 1990s. Are usually genetically modified food products, genetically modified plants: soybean, corn, canola, cotton seed oil, but animal products have been developed. For example, in 2006, has been modified pigs engineered to produce omega 3 fatty acids through the expression of genes, which have produced controversial, opposed by critics of GM foods for several reasons, including the awareness of safe tissue, environmental concerns and economic concerns raised by the Indeed, these organisms are subject to intellectual property law.


The tomato crop first grown commercially in genetically modified food and valuable food crops whole that have been modified to mature without softening, by the Company of California, was welcomed by consumers who bought the fruit of a hefty premium on the price of tomatoes, regular, however, prevented the production problems and competition fruit cultivars by conventional means, and a variant of Savr Flavr hoi was used by Zeneca to produce tomato paste which was sold in Europe during the summer of 1996.

Currently, there are a number of types of food where there is a genetically modified best known for: -
Cotton (cottonseed oil).
Hawaiian papayas.
Rapeseed (canola).
Sugar cane.
Sugar beet.
Sweet corn.
In addition, many micro-organisms genetically modified normally used as sources of enzymes for the manufacture of a variety of processed foods.

The growth of genetically modified crops:-

Between 1997 and 2005, the total area of land cultivated with GMOs had increased from 17,000 km 2 to 900,000 km 2.

In 2005, the largest increase in crop area planted with genetically modified crops (soybeans) in Brazil (94,000 km 2 in 2005, compared with 50,000 km 2 in 2004), there is also a continuous and rapid expansion in cotton varieties genetically modified India is expected that in 2008, 932 000 km 2 will be harvested Bt cotton in India, in 2003, the countries which has grown from 99% of GM crops in the world is the United States (63%), Argentina (21 %) and Canada (6%), Brazil (4%), China (4%), and South Africa (1%).

Crop production:-

Several studies supported by the organic farms have claimed that varieties of genetically modified plants do not produce higher crop yields from natural vegetation. However, the monograph can not prove these allegations, one study by Charles Binbroec, chief scientist at the center of organic found that the roots of soybeans genetically modified ready-made does not increase the yield, and was re-consider the report found that the roots of soybeans ready yielded 7-10% less than similar natural varieties. In addition, the same study found that farmers used herbicides (roots) in the roots-ready soybeans from 5-10 times more than the other traditional.

Co-existence and traceability:-

Does not require the United States and Canada labeling on foods genetically modified, but in other areas there, such as the European Union, Japan, Malaysia and Australia, require governments labeling so consumers can exercise choice between foods genetically modified, conventional or origin organic.

Detection is carried out by experiments on genetically modified organisms in food and feed are routinely using molecular techniques such as X min of nucleic acid, these tests are based on sorting genetic elements (such as P35S, tNos, pat, or bar) or cause-specific benchmarks for genetically modified organisms.


Proved to some scientists that there are over enough food in the world, and that the reason for the hunger crisis problems in food distribution and politics, not production, so people should not be exposed to food that may carry any amount of risk, I suppose this proof that GM food GM has risks not present in traditional food, which obviously it is not without risk.

Economic and political implications:-

Many proponents of GM crops claim that reduced use of pesticides, leading to higher crop and profitability for many farmers, including those in developing countries, there are a few licenses of genetic engineering to allow farmers in developing countries with economic growth at least for the provision of seeds for planting in the next year.

In August 2003, Zambia cut off the flow of genetically modified foods (and mostly from corn) from the United Nations World Food Programme. This left the census of victims of famine without food aid, In December 2005 the Zambian government changed its view in the face of famine, and allowed the import of genetically modified corn.
As well as the same province of crops in Venezuela, Hungary and Europe.

Property Intellectual:-

Subject of genetically modified seeds, for a license by the developers in the contracts that are written to prevent farmers from following the traditional practice, the obligation to patents for genetically modified plants, often causing the conflict, especially because of gene flow.

Future developments:-

While the practical application or efficiency in commercial production has not been fully tested, may see the next decade, a dramatic increase in the development of genetically modified products, as happened researchers to increase valuable access to genetic resources that apply to living organisms outside the scope of individual projects, we refer to that genetically modified crops by using genetic modification techniques are less vulnerable to unintended changes of crops cultivated by traditional means.

Health risks:-

In the United States, you must be a center for Food and Drug Administration Food Safety and Applied Nutrition OK on the properties of food, genetically modified foods on the basis of comparison with foods that traditional manufacturers, there was a January 2009 study, only one human nutrition, and carried out on the implications of genetically modified foods . The study included seven human volunteers who had their stomachs removed the large intestine. These volunteers eat soybeans genetically modified to determine whether the DNA of soybeans genetically modified transferred to human intestinal bacteria. Researchers have identified three of the seven volunteers were passed on the genes of soybeans genetically modified to gut bacteria.

Sensitive test in mid-1990 Pioneer Hi-Bred, testing the allergens of soybeans genetically modified to express the storage protein Brazilian seed nuts in the hope that these seeds increase the levels of methionine amino acids. These tests (tests radioallergosorbent, immunoblotting, test skin-prick) showed that the sensitivity of individuals to nut Brazilian also to the sensitivity of the new soybeans genetically modified, he Pioneer to commercial varieties that contain a protein that Brazil nuts will not develop, since it is likely that the protein is dramatically sensitivity .

Tuesday, 20 April 2010


Web site for social networking can be accessed free of charge and run by "Facebook" limited liability private property to them.

Users can join networks to communicate with others and interact with them. Also, users can add friends to their friends list and send messages to them, and also update their personal friends and the definition of themselves. Indicates the name of the site to guide image provided by the colleges and preschools in the United States of America to the members of the faculty and new students, which includes a description of the members of the campus as a means to get to know them.

By Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook in conjunction with both Dustin Moskowitz and Chris Hughes, who specialized in the study of Computer Science, the membership site is limited initially to students at Harvard University, but subsequently extended to include other colleges in the city of Boston, and then widened the site to include any university student, then high school students and, finally, any person aged 13 years and older. The site currently has more than 350 million users worldwide.

Dating Site:-

Launched Facebook as a product is expected from the "Vis MASH" of the University of Harvard, the Mark Zuckerberg invented Elvis Mash on 28 October 2003, the Zuckerberg set up site "Facebook" and specifically on 4 November 2004, during the first month of access to the site to use, more than half of the students who have not graduated yet from the university enrolled in this service, in June 2004, the relocation of Facebook to the city of Palo Alto, California, the Facebook issue a high school version in September 2005, then, gave the site the participation of staff from several companies, on 26 September 2006, open the site is open to all individuals over the age of thirteen years and older who have e-mail address correctly, in October 2008, organizers announced the management of Facebook to take the capital city of Dublin, Ireland-based internationally him.

Financial aspects:-

Received a Facebook first introduced to an investment amount of 500000 U.S. dollars in June 2004 by Peter Thiel, a founder company "PayPal", and then investment last year after one of 12.7 million dollars of risk capital from the company "Axel Partners", and then 27.5 another million dollars from the company "Jraylock Partners," in one of the cash flow statements that have been leaked, it was found that during fiscal year 2005, Facebook suffered a net loss of about 3.63 million dollars.

With the sale of social networking site popular "MySpace" to the company "News Corporation" on 19 July 2005, spread some rumors circulating for a possible sale of Facebook to a major major media, on 28 March 2006, the magazine "Business Week" that the Negotiations are under way on the purchase of Facebook. In response to that, he refused Facebook offer to sell an estimated 750 million dollars from the bidder not to be named, and spread rumors of another increase the offer price until it reached 2 billion dollars in September 2006, was held serious talks between the leaders of Directors "Facebook" and "Yahoo" about buying Facebook for one billion dollars in November of 2007, the billionaire Li Ka-shing, Hong Kong invested 60 million dollars in Facebook, in October of 2008, Zuckerberg said: "I do not think can be to look at social networking as a way to win the same way through which searches on the Internet.


Users of Facebook to join one or more networks that each of the city or a work or school or territory establishment, users can also connect with friends, while allowing them to access their personal files, the location services to users free of charge, and makes its profits from advertising, in by banner ads, and is "Microsoft" exclusive partner of Facebook to provide a service banner ads, and the Facebook offering ads that included a list of advertisements for the company "Microsoft" only. According to the company, "comScore", a company specialized in marketing research on the Internet, Facebook collects as much data through the patrons to match what is available from the data the company "Google," Microsoft ", but to a lesser extent from the company" Yahoo ".

Site users have accepted:-

According to the company, "comScore", is Facebook's most popular site for social networking, based on the number of new users who visit each month, where Skip main rival MySpace in April 2008, she noted, "comScore" that Facebook was able to attract 132.1 million new users in July of 2008, compared to the site "MySpace", which attracted 117.6 million users, the order location of all available sites had risen from the center sixty to finish seventh in terms of demand and user in the world, in the period From September 2006 to September 2007, and occupies the site is currently in fifth place, and develop enterprise Quantcast to evaluate websites Facebook in the fifteenth in the United States, according to the demand and user, is Facebook the most famous sites from where the uploading photos, is loading 14 million a picture to the site every day.

Active recognition of the courts:-

In December 2008, the Supreme Court ruled for a boycott of the Australian capital to Facebook is a valid protocol to provide notices to the defendant the court to them. It is believed that this is the first court ruling in the world refers to calls made through Facebook as legally binding, in March of 2009, passed David Jindal Supreme Court judge in New Zealand to company "X Market Garden" of the legal papers that prove guilt of the defendant Craig AX through Facebook.

Criticism of the site:-

Facebook's site of much criticism over the past few years. In October 2005, the University of New Mexico banned access to the location of computers and networks on campus, and has indicated the university that the reason behind the ban is in violation of the Acceptable Use Policy of the Internet and the University in connection with the misuse of the resources available on the Internet, Furthermore, the site dictate the use of the credentials of the university in activities not related to the university, in the January 1, 2008, has a group on Facebook to disclose the identity of Stephanie Rengjil; that girl who was killed in the state of Toronto, which were not her family had given permission for police Toronto after the publication of the name or names of the defendants in the case to the media, despite attempts by the police as well as based on the site comply with the rules of privacy by deleting the name of the girl, they have noticed the difficulty in doing so where it is re-dissemination of data once again as has been deleted.Many countries have banned access to the site, including Syria and Iran for several reasons, security and political.


Raised several concerns about the use of Facebook as a means of surveillance and data mining, criticized supporters of confidentiality agreement signed with regard to its commitment to maintaining confidentiality and privacy, raised some concerns about the difficulty for users to access rights or delete their own accounts if desired. Before, Facebook allowed users to "deactivate" their accounts only, so do not display their personal files beyond. In spite of that, any information the user has entered to the site and on the Public Profile will continue to exist on the servers for the site, finally the Facebook policy changes for deleting accounts of users in the February 29, 2008, finally in terms of providing users the ability to connect to the site to request to delete accounts their own permanently.

Thursday, 25 March 2010

Laser Rays

is an abbreviation for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation means amplify light emitting stimulated emission is a beam of photons involved in the frequency and wavelength match to occur the phenomenon of constructive interference between the waves into a light-pulse high-energy.

Date of Laser:-

Laser was invented in 1960 and since then, as it is everywhere, and a tool in thousands of applications are extremely diverse in every section of modern society, including consumer electronics, information technology, science, medicine, industry, law enforcement, first application of lasers visible in the daily life of the general population was the supermarket barcode scanner, introduced in 1974, in 1982, entered in laser printers.

Parts of the laser:-

(1) the center of the laser beam product.
(2) electrical energy to stimulate the center on the version of light waves.
(3) of the light reflector (mirror) high performance.
(4) lens exit beam may be flat Ouadsp concave.
(5) the laser beam output.

Types of laser:-

1-Gas laser.
2-Liquid Laser.
3-Semiconductor lasers.
4-Neodymium-yag aser.

Laser applications:-

1-Laser is currently used in various fields Castamalha in CD and in the electronics industry and accurately measuring the distances - especially the dimensions of space objects - and in communications. Lasers are also used to address some eye diseases where it is shed a laser beam of high-energy in the form of flashes at a certain point in the eye for a short time - less than a second.
2-Laser is used in surgical procedures such as brain surgery, heart and vascular and general surgery. In 1960 invented a device called the laser radiation and a single color, direction, and can be focused with a high degree mediated by a convex lens.
3-In the industry used in industry to cut steel plates, up plate thickness of 3 cm. They have the advantage cut meticulously directed, where the laser-mediated computer.
4-Of the applications of laser welding and active solids and materials that have a high degree of fusion with the franchise because of the precision manufacturing launch of a narrow intense beam focused laser beam can also open a hole diameter of 5 micrometers in 200 microseconds in the most solid materials (such as diamonds, rubies and titanium).
5-Measure distances accurately, whether short or long distances,It is also used in setting specific targets of very.

Types and principles of operation of the laser:-

Laser Gas:-
Many gases are used to produce the laser beam, which is used in many purposes such as (HeNe) and is common in education because of its cost low.
The carbon dioxide laser:-
Are often used in the manufacture of cutting and welding.
Argon-ion laser:-
Depending on the optics and laser tube, and a different number of lines available for use and nitrogen occasional electric discharge in gas at atmospheric pressure.
Chemical laser:-
Powered by a chemical reaction, and can achieve high power in a continuous process.
Solid-state laser:-
Used in the literature for manufactures and their parts, as used in cutting and welding metals.
Semiconductor lasers:-
Is a type of solid state lasers, used for metal cutting and welding and marking of metals and other materials, as well as in spectral analysis and re-pump dye laser, also commonly used at frequencies or wavelengths are different.
Laser Infrared:-
Commonly used pulse spectrum is very short.

Other uses laser:-

Medicine in surgery without blood, and healing laser and surgical treatment, kidney stones, dental - industry, target discrimination, radar, spectroscopy, laser printers, CD-ROMs, scanners barcode, temperature, laser pointers, holograms.

Wednesday, 24 March 2010

Petroleum Technologies(Black Gold)

The origin of oil:-

Grew up oil during the geological ages in the old forests that were breeding in some parts of the earth. Organelles, and marine plankton and aquatic plants, and the fact that organic materials under layers of earth and increase the pressure and turned over millions of years to the oil.

Installation of oil:-

During the liquidation process, the dismissal of the component chemicals in the oil by fractional distillation, a process of separation based on relative boiling points, of various materials resulting from the distillation of oil. And produce various products the order of boiling points, including light gases, such as: methane, ethane analytical chemistry methods, used mainly in quality control in oil refineries.
The oil consists of hydrocarbons and some parts of non-carbon such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, and some small quantities of metals such as vanadium, nickel, and such elements do not exceed 1% of the installation of oil.

History of Oil:-

Were drilled the first oil well in Bouhjar in the fourth century AD or earlier. The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. By the tenth century, was used bamboo pipe to connect the pipes to the sources of salt water. In the eighth century AD, it is paving new roads in Baghdad with tar, which had been brought from the candidacies of oil in this region. In the nineteenth century, began the oil fields in Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce oil economically for the first time.
The modern history of oil in 1853, discovery of the distillation of oil. Was distilled oil and get it on kerosene by Ignasi Lukasiewicz, a Polish scientist. It was the first rock oil mine is created in the Bobrka, near Krosno in southern Poland, the following year was the first refinery, the U.S. oil industry began with Edwin Drake discovered oil in 1859, near Titusvil - Pennsylvania.

By 1910 was the discovery of large oil fields in Canada, the East Indies, Iran, Venezuela, Mexico, and were developing their industrial exploitation, although even in 1955, coal was the fuel in the world, and oil began to take its place after that.
Today, about 90% of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil. Oil accounts for almost 40% of the total consumption of energy in the United States, but is only 2% of electricity generation. The value of the oil lies in the possibility to move, and the large amount of energy in it, which are the source of most vehicles, and as a feedstock in many industrial chemicals, making it one of the most important commodity in the world.

The environmental impacts of oil:-

Oil has significant environmental, social, and from accidents and routine activities that accompany the production and operation, such as seismic explosions during its production and drilling, and generation of polluting wastes. Oil extraction is costly and sometimes harmful to the environment, at the same time disturb the extraction of oil near the shores of the marine organisms and affect their environment. The oil may involve dredging, which stirs up the bottom of the sea, killing the sea plants that marine creatures need to live. Waste as well as crude oil and distillates, which spread from oil tanker accidents in a catastrophic affect on the environment of living organisms threatened with death and extinction in Alaska, the Galapagos Islands and Spain, and many other places.

Cause burning of oil in the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which contributes to global warming. Energy unit, oil produces less amounts of CO 2 from coal, but more than natural gas. Given the key role of oil and gasoline in personal and public transport, the reduction of emissions of CO 2 is one of the thorny issues in its use.
Alternatives are the sources of renewable energy already exists, although the proportion of this replacement is still small. The sun, wind and other renewable sources impacts on the environment less of oil. And these sources can replace oil in the uses that do not require huge amounts of energy, such as home heating and air-conditioning in homes and the use of fuel cell hydrogen-powered cars to move.

Is there oil in the year 2050?

The pace of current consumption, estimated at 3.5 billion tons a year working on most of depletion of oil wells in the world but the Arab States, where he is expected to produce oil as in the case of Kuwait until the year 2100. But who is also clear that the depletion of oil in many countries such as the United States, Scotland and Norway during the next thirty years will struggle industrialized nations singled Bpetrol the Middle East, will this conflict, high oil prices, which would producers promise only that the conflict may result in the same time political and social instability in those countries because of foreign interference.

Three dimensional

Three dimensional:-
Is the common name refers to the vacuum, which has three measurements: width, height and depth (or height). In spherical geometry (geometry of three dimensions) is defined as a branch of mathematics looking at the properties of shapes and solids in a vacuum, the ball and the pyramid.

Three-dimensional design programs:-

Programs used for the spatial three-dimensional designs, and multiple use of such programs are used in making movies, and games, engineering, medicine and many of these programs is the most important:-

1-3ds Max or 3D Studio MAX from the company Autodesk and is one of the most important programs and more three-dimensional efficiency and complexity, controlling the finer details of the spatial and is most effective programs with AutoCAD, which is a product of the same company.
2-Autodesk Maya from the company has won the appreciation of designers in terms of efficiency.
3-Blender Blender Foundation of the company and the advantage of this program as free open-source and features that works on most operating systems Windows, Linux, OSX, BSD, SUN, Rex.

Monday, 15 March 2010

Tidal Energy

Tidal energy or energy Moyotee:-
kind of kinetic energy that is storedin the currnets caused by tides resulting naturally from the moon's gravity and the sun and the earth's rotation on its axis and therefore this energy is classified as renewable energy.
Many coastal States began to take advantage of this kinetic energy to generate electricity, thus relieving the pressure on the thermal power plants, reduce pollution and the result of the thermal power stations run on coal or oil.

Methods of exploitation:-

There are two basic ways to generate electricity using the phenomenon of tidal:-
1-Way the construction of dams:-As a port in the Rance station in France, which was built in 1966 and operates 240 MW power.
2-Horoscopes method:-Adopt that method to install a fan or Two fans blow on the tower, which will be a solid fan beneath the surface of the water.

Terms of use and economic benefit:-

They have to be high tide at least 5 meters, so there is the world's 100 sites available where this condition. Also use this technology in salt water shows the metal pieces used to rust and therefore does not need to care and maintenance of permanent and this could raise the cost and thus lower profit.


The first and largest factory built in 1961 in Saint-Malo France, came into force in 1966 and a high tide in this region between 12 and 16 meters, the French to build a dam 750 meters long and going by the lake area of 22 square kilometers and a capacity of 184 million square meters in this Dam 24 slot, and generating capacity equal to 600 million kilowatt hours annually, is also worth mentioning that this dam is used for water storage by the principle of surplus electricity from other laboratories in non-peak hours to re-use of these energy stored in water at peak times.

The proportion of exploitation:-

The rate of exploitation of currents to the 80 per cent if the course using the latest technology and compared with the proportion of exploitation in the thermal gradient is a very high percentage.


This energy have received a "friendly environment" is not issued any gas or toxic waste as they take into account many of the fisheries research tried to play down the risks that might be exposed as fish passing near the turbine could have already reduced the proportion of the French damage to fish passing from 15 percent to 5 percent.

Of the dangers posed to fish passing through:-
1 - low pressure .
2 - Collision Balemraouh etc.

The whole world looks to alternative sources of conventional energy (coal - gas - fuel) clean and renewable energy were these aspirations to the sources available around the sun - wind - water. The oceans and seas, and had long had the potential source of alternative energy in the ocean carrying capacity in the form of tides and waves and water currents as the world depends on 90% of its electricity on the traditional sources and there are some countries which were the first to use such modern technology, such as France and England United States of America.
Forty years ago there was a fixed interest in harnessing the power of the tides has been to focus attention on the estuaries, where large volumes of expressing the water through narrow channels, which increases the speed of flow, but there was a large environment problems faced scientists for the implementation of this technique, in the nineties was the spread of fences in tidal channels between small islands and it was a choice more effective than being on the estuaries. Hypothesis and other potential for energy from the oceans and seas is to rely on the temperature difference between surface and deeper waters of this method is still under study, is still industrial technology equipment for tidal energy at the beginning, there will be a long time before you submit a contribution to this new energy to generate energy or used for commercial exploitation, generating energy by using the flow of water is not a new idea has recorded in French GIRARD first patent ever use an energy wave in July 1799.

Parts and components of the tidal stations island:-

Principle of the tidal stations is very similar to what plants to hydropower dam in the station tidal much larger than the water station. The tidal station consists of the following major components:-

1-Basin-range, or downstream to find the right place that contains the downstream essential to the success of this station and the spillway is not man-made and it is normal.
2-This term the checkpoint barrier looks like a wall that separates the basin range from the rest of the sea bottom of this barrier will be installed on the seabed and the top of the barrier above the highest level that can reach the water from the tidal maximum.
3-Sluice gates, which are areas of the barrier that water can flow free of the estuary and out of these gates are not open on a permanent basis where they are controlled by operators Energy Center be appropriate to determine the flow of water to the turbines and tidal these portals do not have a specific location on the barrier term.
4-These same tidal turbines turbines arranged within the barrier range and settle near the bottom of the sea floor and are designed in a manner similar to the turbine steam turbine. Turbines are located between the position of the sluice gates on both side of the sea and the estuary of the barrier-range when you open the gates through which the water rushes to the turbine for electricity generation in accelerating.

Tidal turbine island:-

There are two types of centers of tidal power generation (in terms of the type of turbine):-
The first type:-Single impact, these centers generate energy from the flow of water through turbines in one direction only, like the steam turbine, where you can not work when there is a steam in the opposite direction. Turbines can not work in these centers only when the passage of water in one direction only.
The Second type:-Influence bilateral working turbine bilateral influence on the same principle the only influence almost as a special session begins with a single effect that the water level in the estuary and lower the water level rises in the sea conditions tidal sluice gates open in front of and behind the turbine to the rush of water through turbines to generate electricity, when the water level inside the estuary the same level of water in the sea close the sluice gates. The water level remains high in the estuary and the water in the sea will reach the state of low tide. When the sea water level drops enough to re-open the gates and behind the turbine and the water flows out through the downstream turbine, generating electricity when the passage of water, turbines will generate a bilateral effect more energy than twice the energy generated by turbines single impact, but in practice can not Turbines bilateral influence to generate this amount because of the loss in time due to the closure and open the sluice gates bilateral effect.

States that benefit from this energy:-

South Korea.
the United States.
New Zlnda.
South Africa.

Friday, 12 March 2010

Geothermal Energy

Geothermal Energy:-
Are a source of alternative energy clean and renewable, and high thermal energy of natural origin in the magma stored in the ground. It is estimated that more than 99% of the mass of the Earth is a rock temperatures exceed 1000 degrees Celsius.

Advantage of this thermal energy mainly in the generation of electricity. In some cases, used for heating when the temperature near the Earth's surface or on the image of hot spring,This renewable energy, in theory, could be enough to cover the world's need of energy for a period of 100000 years to come, however, converted into electrical energy is very expensive, even though the primary energy (raw material) free of charge and widely available but difficult to obtain.

Date human use of geothermal energy:-

Geothermal energy is from renewable energy sources that have been used for a long time through the exploitation of water hot springs. Terms of use dates back to more than 10000 years ago, when American Indians used hot springs to cook their food.


Not available thermal energy directly in nature only in geothermal sources, and that makes it easy to exploit. It is estimated reserves of geothermal energy in the belt depth of 2000 meters below the surface about what produces 250 billion tons of coal energy, in theory could cover that amount of energy the world needs energy for a period of 100000 years to come.
Apportion the sources for obtaining geothermal energy into two categories: hot water, groundwater and hot rocks that are found in active volcanic areas or in the depths beneath the surface of the ground and can take advantage of geothermal water and Ackoralharp in generating electricity and heating water used for heating, in addition to use in many fields of industry, agriculture, the other, in many cases using geothermal energy to heat homes when the temperature near the surface or on the image of hot springs or when the temperature is low (about 65 C), where the cost of extraction and use of reasonable. In Iceland the spreading hot springs, and is used for heating purposes.

Advantages of this energy:-

1-As renewable energy, they are sources of energy that Atnvd at least for the generations to come.
2-Clean energy not harmful to the environment, and do not cause any pollution both in the extraction or in the transfer or use.
3-Available in very large quantities and in the vast majority of countries in the world.
4-Low cost of energy production after the initial costs for the production of the station (which can be expensive).
5-High yield of energy extracted.

Generating electricity using geothermal energy:-

There are three types of power plants using geothermal energy, as follows:-

1-Dry steam plants:-
The oldest and most widespread, the same method used in Italy in 1904. These stations use water from the naturally in the deep layers, which is located under the influence of pressure and temperature prohibitively high, Veetm extracted by drilling deep wells come out in the form of water vapor because of high temperature and because of pressure difference. This steam is moving in the pipes and then displays the turbines spin generators that produce electric power. Condensate water is pumped to the ground by another well called injection wells.
2-Evaporation stations:-
These stations are used in high pressure fluids underground where they are concentrated in the pot with a small hole leading to another container with a moderate pressure, when the movement of fluid from the first vessel to the second through hole evaporates because of the speed difference and the high pressure. Run steam turbine and in turn drives an electrical generator which produces electricity. The remaining condensate water is pumped to the ground through injection wells.
3-Service stations double:-
Use of these stations are underground fluids with high boiling point (about 200 C) is pumped to the top where the water is heated with a normal boiling point (100 C) in another pipe going through the hot side of the tube. The water evaporates, which have been heated due to the heat of the liquid in the tube the other. Drives the steam turbine electric generator and condenses again, it is attributable to the hot side of the tube, and moving this way in the rotation continues. The extracted water is pumped back to the earth through injection wells.

Disadvantages and constraints:-

Despite all the advantages of geothermal energy, which made them at the forefront of alternative energy sources for the future. However, there are some factors that are difficult to spread at least in the present time. Among the most important of these reasons the high cost of establishing power generation of electricity using geothermal energy. The reason is that the difficulty of drilling deep abyss and central temperature is very high.

Thursday, 11 March 2010

Natural Gas

Natural Gas:-
One of the alternative energy sources for oil fuels high-efficiency low-cost, low-emissions pollute the environment, natural gas energy supplier for the initial task of Chemical Industry.

Since ancient times people observed in several places in the world, such as Dagestan, Turkmenistan, on the Caspian Sea, in the home of the Red Indians of North America Oblac mountains of fire "burning down and coming out of the ground did not know then that that is what is now known as the" natural gas. "
Was used, "natural gas" in "China" as a fuel since 250 AD, and in the seventeenth century was used for heating and lighting in the north of "Italy", as used for street lighting in England in the eighteenth century AD, but was often treated exhaust . Old and could not be moved or stored, which led to its use in areas close to the fields of production, and with a significant growth in the manufacture of "oil" in the nineteenth and twenty-treated "natural gas" outside with the "oil" exhaust and it is usually burned, Now the burning "natural gas" criminal law in many countries of the world.

Consists of natural gas from the plankton, which micro-organisms include algae and the initial died and accumulated in the layers of the oceans and land, and Andguett remains under layers of sediment. And across the millennia, pressure and temperature resulting from a transfer of these sedimentary layers of organic material to natural gas, natural gas does not vary much from DO in the other fossil fuels such as coal and oil.
After forming out in the earth's crust leaking natural gas and oil slowly to the pits small porous rocks that are nearby warehouses to save the raw, and because these rocks are usually filled with water, oil and natural gas - both lighter than water and less dense than the surrounding rock - they move up through the earth's crust over long distances sometimes.

Global reserves of natural gas:-

It is clear that global demand for gas has accelerated greatly exceeded the capacity of many countries to develop the means of production, consistent with the rates of increase in demand, which increases by 3% annually, creating a multiplier applied by the producing countries and consuming countries and in parallel, this led to the cumulative global consumption of natural gas to more than 100 trillion cubic feet of natural gas until 2010, and is expected to increase global demand for the 160 trillion cubic feet until 2030.
And reach the total natural gas reserves in the world - according to figures in 2005 - for about 6112 trillion cubic feet, and the largest reserves of natural gas in the world, in Russia Federation, the amount of U.S. 1680 trillion cubic feet.

Gas production and processing:-

Extract natural gas from wells similar to oil wells there are a lot of gas concentrations at a distance from the beach and transport gas from tube production platforms to the assembly point bordering on the beach and then to the refinery where purified. In the first stage of purification, water continues to Wye other means of gas by gravity then passes through the dry gas cooler where Itsel propane and collecting. And marketed as liquefied petroleum gas as raw materials for the manufacture of chemicals or bottled fuel for heaters and cooking stoves in the home. What is left of natural gas can be pumped through the supply network, or converted to liquid-cooled, pressure, and marketed as liquefied natural gas flow.

Forms of presence of natural gas:-

1-Non-Associated Gases.
2-Associated Gases.
3-Industrial and commercial gas:Inert Gas,Acid Gas,Natural Gas Liquids,Liquefied Natural Gas,
Liquefied Petroleum Gas,Natural Gasoline,Condensate.

Wednesday, 10 March 2010

Information Security

Information Security: -
science that works to provide protection of information from the risks that threaten or attack through providing the necessary tools and means available to protect information from internal or external risks. Standards and procedures taken to prevent access to information by unauthorized persons through communication and to ensure the authenticity of such communications.

The security of information is old, but began to be used effectively since the development of technology and:-

1-Operating systems, protection systems.
2-Protection systems programs and applications.
3-Systems, protection of databases.
4- Access protection systems.

The simplest types of protection is the use of a person who used the definition of use and reliability, legitimacy and the means designed to ensure the use of system or network of the person authorized to use and includes community types of passwords, smart cards used for the definition, the definition of biological means of which depends on the specific attributes of a person related to the user built Diversity keys encrypted and can join this community to close the so-called electronic delineate areas of force.
We note from the above that all this technology has reached the world can not live without the security of information For example, the banking system if there is no security information could any person that enters the system and change up and become a millionaire from nothing.

Classified information:-

To know the degree of protection should be provided, information is classified according to their importance, it is this information does not require protection at all, and can be obtained from want, and which require a degree of protection and can be obtained a certain amount of people, and of which requires the maximum protection and can not be obtained only by one person.

Means of protection:-

Should be prepared by each institution has its own way to provide information security risk within the limits of potential regulatory and budget allocated for protection, and should not be a weak security measures can not guarantee the required protection and not be exaggerated to some extent affect the performance of services in the nature of the information system.

The adoption of information security and auditing:-

Become information systems, databases and networks backbone of world knowledge and industrial, financial, health and other sectors. It became important to maintain the security of the information of the three main elements: confidentiality, propriety and continuity. At the global level highlights of ISO accreditation, evaluation and standardization 27001 to ensure the security of information. There is also a system of HIPAA in the United States to ensure the security of health information system of the ISACA COBIT for the security of information.

Certification of information security experts:-

CISA is the information systems auditor approved one of the leading certification in the management information systems. It is also CISSP certified information security expert testimony supported a task in information security. There are also specialized certificates in most large companies to customize the security of information, such as Microsoft, Cisco and other companies.

Includes the purpose of the preparation of a strategy to ensure security of information provide the following basic elements provide adequate protection of information and systems:-

1-Confidentiality:- to ensure that the information can not be accessed or obtained by the parties are not allowed to do so.
2-Identified:- to ensure the identity of the user of information systems when he wants to deal with, and verify that it is the same user.
3-Safety content-: Make sure that the information is correct and has not been modified.
4-Continuity:- Ensure the maintenance of the information system all the components of computers and software and communication equipment and others, and provide services to beneficiaries.
5-Non-repudiation: the uncertainty of which has something connected with information and the inability to deny having actually this work.
Such as electronic signature and electronic authentication.

Tuesday, 9 March 2010

Iron high flexibility

Japan researchers designed alloy steel high flexibility can be used in advanced heart surgery and brain in the construction of buildings, an earthquake zone.

The researchers pointed out that the high flexibility of the metal to allow him back into shape and provide him with additional attributes such as flexibility and change in the magnetic stress and the rate of alloy steel is nearly twice the rate of nickel and titanium can be used stents are placed in the tubes of blood vessels to prevent obstruction.

The T. Aomori researcher at the Faculty of Engineering at Tohoku University and a member of the research team, that the rate of stress is very high in the alloy and therefore can be converted to a very high wire he can access the internal part of the body like the brain to the stent. Aomori and added that high-iron alloy flexibility may also be used for buildings in areas prone to earthquakes and earthquake distorts the buildings, but alloy high flexibility to return the buildings to its origin.

Friday, 5 March 2010

electronic trading

The definition of electronic trading:-
E-business, but generally what people think it is just a trade or sale of goods over the Internet, e-business is a process to involve Information Technology, especially the Internet in transactions between the client and the service provider and also involving them in the process of marketing and product innovation, which fit in the cycle of production, this would be at best the beginning of supplier of raw materials and the end user customer.
or:-"Implementation of all operations related to buying and selling goods and services and information using the Internet, in addition to other global trading networks,".

E-commerce expression that can divide it into two sections:-

1-"trade", which refers to economic activity is through the circulation of goods and services between governments, institutions and individuals and is governed by several rules and regulations can be argued that an internationally recognized.
2-"Electronic" refers to a description of the area of trade performance, and is intended to perform commercial activity using media and electronic methods such as the Internet.

Characteristics of e-commerce:-

1-There is no use of paper documents exchanged and used to make and implement commercial transactions, and that the processes of interaction and exchange between dealers are conducted electronically and are not using any type of securities.
2-Can be handled through the application of e-commerce with more than one party at the same time.
3-Interaction between the two dealers e-commerce by the communications network, and distinguishes this method is a high degree of interactivity is that the parties at the same time online on the web.
4-The lack of joint coordination between all States in order to coordinate the issuance of a specific law of each country taking into account the laws of other countries, and this in turn impede the universal application of electronic commerce.
5-Can be buying and selling of non-physical goods, directly and through the communications network.
6-The use of computer systems available in the business for the flow of data between the two parties to be there without any direct intervention of manpower help to complete the business process at low cost and high efficiency.

Forms of e-commerce:-

1-E-commerce between businesses.
2-E-commerce between the enterprise and consumer.
3-E-commerce between the enterprise and the government.
4-E-commerce between the consumer and the government.

Levels of e-commerce:-

1-E-commerce low-level:-
This type of e-commerce promotion of goods and services, in addition to advertising for such goods and services, including services before and after the sale.
2-E-commerce with advanced level:-
The focus of this type on the processes and procedures for payment over the Internet, which is practically the same level of awareness needs to be a big part of dealers at this level.


The volume of electronic commerce in the world, about $ 3.8 trillion in 2003, according to UN estimates, the figure has doubled to reach $ 6.8 trillion at the end of 2004, although about 80% of the volume of world trade is in the United States, 155 in Western Europe, 5% in the rest of the world, most of them, or about 4% of which are in Japan.

Barriers to the use of e-commerce:-

1-Low level of per capita income.
2-Lack of awareness of what can be provided by information technology and e-commerce.
3-Inadequate infrastructure for wireless access to the Internet or the high cost of access to the Internet.
4-The lack of legal frameworks and regulatory.
5-Not use the local language and local content.
6-Lack of individual initiative.
7-The lack of payment systems can be in its role to support business transactions conducted on the Internet.
8-Cultural resistance to e-commerce on the Internet.


The word "Forex":-
refers to the foreign exchange market or the global stock of foreign exchange, the abbreviation of the term economic foreign language "Foreign Exchange Market",A market extends throughout the world where the disposal of currency by several participants, such as international banks and international institutions and financial markets and individual traders.

Stock Exchange or the stock market:-Market, but they differ from other markets, it does not display do not have in most cases, goods and commodities, but the goods are sold by the real assets, but not securities or financial assets, and often these goods stocks and bonds.

Date currency market:-

Some scholars say that the Forex market due to the Babylonians in terms of its foundations and principles. In those times traders were exchanging goods for other items. When the world entered into the age of minerals, gold and silver has become one of the most heavily traded commodities. With the entry of regimes and governments that made coins, trade has become the most important minerals of economic instruments by States. Because of the magnitude of the metals market and the involvement of governments have enacted laws which reduced the traders in this market, which was do I cause the economic crisis in the U.S. twenty and thirty years of the twentieth century.
Born in 1931 the foreign exchange market or forex is known today. Despite the passage of so many years but that the word Forex is still not mean a lot to people in the world, especially for traders and businessmen, and they do not know fall under the branch of stock trading in the global economy.

Stock markets exist in all countries of the world, each with its specialization and exchange. In addition to the currency market, there are other types of exchanges such as: gold, silver, oil stocks, shares and bonds, agricultural and energy.
There are two types of stock exchanges: - direct stock exchange, stock exchanges across the networks, FX tracking in stock exchanges across the networks (through the telephone connection and Internet computer at one time among hundreds of banks around the world). This is why the magnitude of the currency market, there are hundreds of millions of dollars bought and sold every few seconds. And currency exchanges are also characterized by various indicators and technical analysis, news analysis and rapid access to the profits.

Features forex market:-

Financial analysts estimated daily volume of currency trading in the Forex market at about $ 3 trillion (3 trillion dollars a day), where hundreds of millions of dollars bought and sold every few seconds.
And are traded by buying and selling major currencies which have the basic share from operations in the forex market is the U.S. dollar (USD) the base currency and the euro (EUR) and Sterling (GBP) and Swiss franc (CHF) and Japanese Yen (JPY), Australian dollar ( AUD), Canadian Dollar (CAD) and the currencies of other Arab and foreign countries.
Unlike several markets spread in the market, the currency market is not a market of elite capable of dealing with only a few people, but lack of interest in media coverage of economic activities, trade currency to make this market away from the public. Even people who do not have experience in dealing with the Internet and computer, they can trade through telephone calls to brokerage firms.

Of trading in the currency market:-

Are buying and selling of different currencies in U.S. dollars or other currencies among themselves, which defines the currency pairs as opposed to the U.S. dollar or any currency against another currency value. The currency trading earn from trade in the stock exchanges.
Rates are large multi-currency changes, which helps to do some business operations during a single day. It is known that decreases the influence over the financial markets, which could lead to the collapse of stock or bonds. The forex market decline in the dollar (for example) means the price rise of the second currency and there is no such mention the collapse of the stock or bonds.
Forex market combining four regional markets: Australian and Asian, European and American. And continue operations where all trading days of work and the market closes on Saturday and Sunday, and the market operates around the clock 24 hours a day. And the relative calm from 20:00 until 01:00 GMT, and is attributed to the closure of the New York Stock Exchange eighth in the evening and the start of the Tokyo Stock Exchange work at one o'clock in the morning.

Of the most important features of trading in the forex market in addition to the rapid variability is margin trading, a trade deal with so-called (trade margin) which you booked a small amount from your account (1000 dollars) for purchase (100000) dollars, called the Procurement Unit (Lute) and win or lose by the movement of currency or commodity or metal which is purchased or sold him, and this type of trading (even if it looks simple) is one of the most profitable types of trading where you can earn a significant profit during the few seconds a result of economic news or raise the rate of interest and download or a natural disaster or other causes of economic and other, and important characteristics of the currency market is characteristic balance despite the fact that this seems strange. Everyone knows that the fundamental characteristic of the financial market is the sudden nosedive. However, the Forex market is different from the stock market in that it does not fall.

Tips for the novice Forex:-

1-Prepare yourself and optimism trades conducted by when convinced.
2-Do not overdo this, and the most important reactions in both the profit or loss and try to maintain your style and behavior.
3-Should learn to grasp the opportunities.
4-InterWorx and your profits can make you bankrupt.
5-Always remember you are the only person responsible for the profit and loss in trading.
6-Learn from your mistakes and the mistakes of others and Make it between your eyes even for a retrospect again.
7-Remember to analyze the market closing price each day compared to the highest and the lowest price.
8-Do not buy just because the price is low or sell just because the price high.
9-Not miss your time in remorse over lost opportunities The market exists and the opportunities present every day.

These are some tips that I liked to benefit the beginner and rolling so that there is awareness and understanding of this large market.

Wednesday, 3 March 2010

Global warming

The definition of global warming:-
Gradual and continuous increase of the average temperature of the Earth's surface and oceans of water, leading to changes in climate may reach catastrophic levels with time.

What are the causes of global warming?

Climate scientists studied this phenomenon for decades, and have a thorough analysis of the courses and the natural phenomena that affect the formation change. Shows a result he can not explain the pattern and amount of increase in temperature of the Earth Based on these factors alone, and we must take the impact of greenhouse gases generated by the human mind, greenhouse emissions from fuel combustion contribute to the worsening problem of global warming.

What are greenhouse gases?

A group of greenhouse gases generated by the rights in different ways, mostly produced by burning fossil fuels, coal and oil in cars, factories and power plants. The carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to heat the Earth more important because of the large quantities resulting from the combustion processes. Followed by methane (CH4) resulting from the fermentation processes in the food industry, agriculture and waste dumps, and nitrous oxide gas (N2O) resulting from the industry, fertilizers, gases used in refrigeration and other industrial processes, and finally the removal of forests, which store a great deal of carbon dioxide gas if remained alive.
Vary in their ability of these gases on global warming than carbon dioxide. Valmithan nitrous oxide and refrigerant gases differ in their ability to store thermal energy for carbon dioxide, the equivalent of 20 and 300, and a few thousand times, respectively. However, due to the small quantities of other gases in the atmosphere, their impact on heating the earth remains limited compared with carbon dioxide.

How do greenhouse gases to warm the earth?

Penetrating rays of the sun visible, with a relatively short wavelength, atmosphere of the Earth, and is working to heat the surface and oceans. In contrast, infrared, long wave, which is emitted from the surface of Earth and its waters back They reflect mostly from the atmosphere back to Earth absorbs and thus gradually raise the temperature above the average on an ongoing basis. Greenhouse gases and play a key role in that disturbed the balance of natural uncommon for the temperature of the earth, and increased gradually heated.

What is the increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases since 1750? It is the countries responsible for that?.

The increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases since 1750 in the following order: -

Carbon dioxide( CO2) 36%.

Methane( CH4) 148%.

Gas nitrous oxide( N2O) 18%.

It is responsible for this first-class United States and Europe, the cradle of the industrial revolution and technological progress marched rapidly after World War II, and the discovery of the enormous resources of fossil fuels coal, oil and natural gas. Is equivalent to what launched the United States from greenhouse gases alone, the total launched by South America, Africa, the Middle East, Japan, and Asia. The United States launched in 2007 seven billion tons of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere of the Earth.
And is expected to equal the emissions of greenhouse gases for the second with the industrialized world by the year 2015, and is expected to increase after the thermal pollution resulting from the developing countries in large quantities. Are expected to increase the temperature of the earth and oceans between 4 C to 8 C by the year 2100, depending on the pace of global economic growth.

What are the effects of global warming?

Melting ice One result of global warming
The Earth is warming the length and breadth, and the evidence of this abound in multiple places:
* Ice melts in each place where, especially in the north and south poles. This will have a significant and serious implications for water in this planet, and rising sea levels and ocean, and will disappear as a result of a large number of islands scattered in the oceans, and coastal countries will lose an important part of its territory, which would reflect negatively on the productivity of the economic and tourist sites and cultural rights. It is expected sea level rise between 20 and 50 cm by the year 2100.

Evidence abound that the world is currently in between (2010 -2000) to climate change, and hotter temperatures not seen in the ground in its history. As a result:-

1 - increased flooding and destructive storms.
2 - Increased periods of prolonged drought, and breadth of the phenomenon of desertification, the spread of fires.
3 - catastrophic changes in environments of plant and animal populations, which will lead to the extinction of some species of animals like a bear, polar, for example, decreased numbers of some of the other penguins in Antarctica, which decreased in number from 32000 to 11000 in 30 years.
4 - the spread of epidemics and famine, widespread and dangerous.
5 - breeding of insects out of control and destruction of forests.
6 - the destruction of coral reefs and marine environments.
7 - predicting the demise of Arctic ice within (7-5) years.

What can we do?

To save our planet from a similar fate we have to do a variety of the most important actions:-

1-That the United Nations to develop binding agreements for all States, also tried at the Copenhagen conference which concluded in 2009-12-18, but failed because of differences between the advanced industrial countries and developing countries and the dominance of monopolies and capital on the policies of the participating countries.
2-Development of alternative sources of clean energy: as wind, sun, and the generation of electrical energy from water resources and dams.
3-Development of new technologies developed a highly efficient use of energy to become a pillar of the global economy.
4-Every State's obligation to maintain strict legislation on the environment and cleanliness at all levels.
5-The upbringing and education of generations to be on the high level of commitment to environmental conservation and maintenance.

Let us work together to save our beautiful planet and civilization of humanity

Solar energy

Solar energy:-
a source of inexhaustible energy, but it is up to us are scattered and need to be a modern technology (solar cells) for compilation and use of, a source of clean is not caused by any use of gas or products harmful to the environment as is the case in other fuels.
The definition of solar cells: - Transformers Voltazaviip convert sunlight directly into electricity, a semiconductor and sensitive scan and surrounded by front and rear cover conductor of electricity.

Benefited rights since the foot of the solar radiation energy directly in many applications drying crops and heating homes. Also used in other areas, have been burned Archimedes Rummani Navy in the war in 212 BC by focusing solar radiation on the vessels of the enemy by the hundreds of metal armors. In the Babylonian priests, the women were using verse gold polished mirrors to concentrate solar radiation to get a shot.
Has also been established in the early first century AD the current international terminal for irrigation, solar energy was mediated by working for five hours per day, near Cairo.
Man tried long ago to take advantage of solar energy exploitation, but as far as small and limited but the great development of technical and scientific progress reached by man opened up a new science in the field of solar energy utilization.

Solar energy conversion:-

Can convert solar energy into electrical energy and thermal energy through the photoelectric conversion mechanisms and the thermal conversion of solar energy, has been manufacturing many models of the solar cells can produce electricity in a scientific manner and is characterized by solar cells that it does not include moving parts or pieces, which do not consume fuel or air pollution and life is long and require little maintenance. Achieved the best use of this technology under the console application of solar radiation (solar module) without any optical concentrators, lenses and therefore can be installed on the roofs of buildings to serve in the production of electricity, efficiency is usually estimated at about 20%, while the rest can be utilized to provide heat for heating and water heating.
The applications of solar water heaters are the most prevalent in the area of the thermal conversion of solar energy. Followed by the most important solar dryers that are frequently used in drying some crops such as dates, as well as others can take advantage of the thermal energy to cook food.
The storage of solar energy research of the most important areas of development needed in the application of solar energy and spread of a wide range, where solar energy is available but it is not at hand and not free, real ones, the words on the equipment used to convert electromagnetic energy into electrical energy or heat, as well as storage if necessary.

Applications on the use of solar energy:-

1-Urban planning and architecture: the design of buildings based on the exploitation of solar energy so that it may hand the south for light and warmth.
2-Plant cultivation and horticulture: machinery used in the management of water pumping, crop drying and hatching chickens and drying chicken manure, greenhouses (glass).
3-Solar lighting: The use of natural sunlight from the most commonly used types of lighting throughout the ages.
4-Heat of the sun: The use of techniques that rely on the exploitation of heat from the sun to heat water and space heating and cooling and the process of generating heat.
5-Water treatment: solar distillation is used to make salt water, water, wheat fit for drinking.
6-Solar cooking: The solar cooker is a device that uses sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization. The types are divided into three categories: funds that traps heat and stoves, curved concentrators (Barrapolaaks) and stoves in the form of flat panels.
7-Heat treatment: The means to focus solar energy can provide heat treatment for industrial and commercial.
8-Electricity generation: You can convert sunlight directly into electricity using adapters Voltodoiip (PV) and the process of concentration of solar power (CSP) and many other experimental methods.
9-Solar-powered cars.

Methods of storing solar energy:-

Can not get on solar energy during the night. Thus, energy storage is necessary because modern energy systems need to be a source of energy is available all the time, the thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at temperatures useful for domestic purposes, either daily or throughout the season, is a variable-phase materials such as paraffin wax and Glauber's salt sources of thermal energy storage as well. These materials are not expensive and ready to use and can reach temperatures useful for domestic purposes (approximately 64 degrees Celsius), can store solar energy is very high temperatures using molten salts.

Tuesday, 2 March 2010

Robot Technology

Robots: -
machine is able to carry out operations of pre-programmed. The robot completed these events either at the instigation and direct control of the rights or at the instigation of the software.

The word robot was introduced for the first time in a play by Czech playwright Karl Chapik in 1920. The title of the play and then robots Global. It means in the Czech language of hard work,Experts and engineers succeeded in providing a variety of automated systems for many industries. Because of the enormous development of computers and artificial intelligence techniques, Man on the verge of major breakthroughs in space science by robots.

Overview of the robot automation:-

There is controversy about the precise definition of robot is no other car or plane with a remote control robot, because it lacks a way of thinking and decision-making itself, and provides some example that if the robots can be carried out pre-established program moves away from the barrier two steps back, for example, the trend to the right or left and continue to progress, this can be considered a real robot, there are many types of robots, including those used in the industrial sector, which is an automated devices can be adapted and re-programmed and used for many purposes, can the movement of three or more axes and using this type of companies the major industrial minerals for the purpose of meat, and some forms of robots that is capable of movement and leadership, including the unmanned aircraft (instrument flight), Albraidator and aircraft self-control using artificial neural networks, for example, which is Alansaltan sent by NASA in 2004 to the surface of Mars months, the Robert animation.

There are robots that is able to reassemble itself in a semi-autonomous, for example, shrinking its size to pass through a narrow tunnel and this Alansen automation in the model contains many links with the CPU, memory, and receivers able to have some of these movements, similar to rubber to contain on a flexible, There are also types of robots are household chores, and children learn and play chess. This type of robot referred to as social robot, we can say that the robot is a device or machine that could replace rights in some situations. Morphology depends on the task that was made for.

The idea of robots in ancient history:-

Roots robot modern, automatic equipment was invented in the distant past and called it "self-propelled machines." In the era of the ancient Egyptians around 1500 BC there was a statue of the king Memnon Isdrosouatta beautiful in the morning. In Greece - in the fourth century BC. M. - Invented Orkitas mathematician, Dove mechanism could fly. In the third century BC, invented many devices Stisebeos mechanism, including a musical instrument resembling an organ-water and water clock.
In Europe in the Middle Ages, philosophers interested Vajnos Albert and Roger Bacon's great interest in machinery movement, but some of them do well. The invention of the time the mechanism in the late thirteenth century, to supply machinery self-propelled mechanical force necessary, and so could be the invention of the clock bells ringing to announce the time. In the eighteenth century, toy makers produced a large number of self-propelled machines which were in human form and can talk and play music and write and even play chess.

George the robot:-

George was one of the first robot that have emerged. George led the aircraft most of the time, it's autopilot was invented by electrical engineer Elmer Sperry Sperry, founder of the Hi and the model was the first automatic pilot is connected with the magnetic compass device for reading and a rise indicates the direction in which the plane, and leave the responsibility for human pilots fly to George the robot, and once to stabilize the plane in the right direction for her, and notes any change George vertical or horizontal flight and take corrective action immediately.
In 1954 designed the first industrial robot was the name of its inventor, George, too, was designed by architect George Difol.

Robot movement:-

Legs of the robot contains advanced in some cases more than 40 sensor and the mechanical device and the sensors continuously measure the pressure distribution on the legs hanging has been in the industry in 2004 robot legs can be attached to the legs of Rights to help transform ordinary human steps to giant steps quickly and without making muscular effort of man, was named this invention the external structure and mud weighing about 50 kg.
The robot is to coordinate the steps in steps Rights simulates a very complex process and it would be easier to use wheels instead of legs, Alansalat types of sophisticated use of moving legs and SIGMO robot QRIO robot and robot ASIMO.

The tradition of the most difficult leg of the tradition of human human hand, and the main problems that correspond to the problem of robot-makers balance, it is best to have a robot four legs instead of two. The idea of production machinery can walk and move the idea of recent. He used some of them over the years in agricultural operations and drilling. Among the most famous of these machines moving truck with four legs produced by General Electric Company of the U.S. Army, and controls the driver in the truck to move his hands and legs legs that connect the truck.

Types of robot:-

The robot can be divided according to their respective characteristics and the target which was prepared for it. Robot may be designed to perform specific work in high-precision, or a certain number of work but less precisely, and can of course be re-programmed robot to perform different or pursuant to act in a manner different from what it had to do, if its central permit. For example, can modify a task the robotic arm used in the factories of metal cutting to the assembled, welded, Tchigaha, pregnancy, or even to become a machine used in the passenger entertainment of visitors to the factory, while robots load and transport it can be modified only to the compilation of its Printed Circuit Board .

Advantages and disadvantages of the robot:-

Robot offers several advantages including, for example: greater productivity, effective use of the equipment, low labor costs, improved flexibility, work is done in a shorter time, flexibility and ease of programming, the ability to work in hazardous conditions, improved quality of premises and production, investment returns good, better precision in performance.
Have a number of shortcomings and deficiencies, such as unemployment, manual workers and a lot of technical problems as the other use. Especially in the fields of artificial intelligence or machine vision.

In the cinema and science fiction to imagine a robot probability of a threat to the future of rights because of artificial intelligence, but on the ground, the danger resulting from the Artificial Intelligence is almost non-existent due to the fact that research in this area is still at the stage of beginning. However, the use of these systems on the robot war or give the controls on the equipment may pose a serious threat to human life, regardless of how the development of intelligent systems Alistai them. The existing application.

Monday, 1 March 2010

The Volcano

The definition of the volcano:-
Is that place from which he graduated or emits materials Alzirip warm with fumes and gases associated with the depth of the earth's crust and occurs during the nozzles or cracks. And accumulate molten material or by type of flow to form the different land forms, including conical hills or high volcanic mountains.

Volcanoes of the unique natural phenomena called the attention of rights since the League and they play a great role in geological processes that affect the evolutionary history of the earth's crust and shape. This is because most parts of the earth's crust affected Alandfaip underwent operations in its composition to the contribution of operations Alandfaip. According to a study to identify the volcanic centers of study of earthquakes and volcanoes, a branch of geology, which has become known as a stand-alone volcanology.

Parts of volcanoes:-

1-Cone-shaped mountain: composed of the wreckage of a rocky material thrown from the volcano crater was all or some of them in molten state.
2-Mouth: It is a cavity almost round shape at the top of the cone, width ranging from a few thousand meters. And flowed from the crater at intervals of gas and the masses of rock, shells and lava and molten materials.
3-Chimney or reed: a channel extending from the bottom of the crater to the bottom where you connect a bakery magma underground. And push through volcanic material to the crater. Sometimes known as the neck of the volcano.

Types of volcanic materials:-

1-Rocky debris: emerge as a result of volcanic eruptions rocky debris into different types and sizes usually in the first period of volcanic eruptions.
2-Gases: Graduated from volcanic activity during the gas water vapor, which derives a great quantities of a component of the huge clouds mixed with dust and other gases. Is building these fumes, causing the heavy rain falling in the vicinity of the volcano.
3-Lava: The liquid clusters "instead of volcanoes, and has a temperature between 1000 and 1200, the two types: -
*LAVA lightweight, light colored.
*LAVA heavy dark color.

Forms of volcanoes:-

1- Volcanic rock debris:
Vary in shape depending on the volcanic cone material that consists of them. If the cone composed entirely of rock debris, we found a high steep for the space occupied by the base.
2-Volcanic plateau:
Arise as a result of exit and lava accumulation around the main crater and look like low-rise for the large area occupied by the rules. The peaks seem like Bhiab convex.
3-Volcanoes stratified:
Stratified volcanic common type of existence, is in the form of ex-center types and composed of materials Mkrotadtha debris flows, lava rock and directed by the volcano eruption, while ease.

The geographical distribution of volcanoes:-

1-omain that surrounds the Pacific Ocean and coastline, which is sometimes known as Ring of Fire.
2-There are many volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean itself and some great grew up in a huge hall and appeared towering above the level of its waters. Volcanoes, including the Hawaiian Islands, which is based norms in the ocean at a depth of 5000 m, and rises above the water surface of more than 4000 m.
3-Southern Europe, overlooking the Mediterranean and the adjacent islands. The most active volcanoes here Vesuvius near Naples, Italy, and Sicily, and Aetna Islands Astro Mpule (Lighthouse of the Mediterranean) in the islands of Lipari.
4-Highlands of Western Asia and months and Ararat volcanoes Aliuzenz.
5- Scale-east of Africa and months Brkinh Kilimanjaro. Me.

Effects of volcanoes:-

1-In the formation of the Earth's surface:
Above that we can discern the effects of volcanoes in the formation of the Earth's surface is created majestic mountains and plateaus spacious. When subside arise in the cavities of lakes in those pores rainforest.
2-In human activity:
Strange that a man did not played accommodation near volcanoes in order to be safe from the dangers, seen live near them, but on the slopes as well. Vesuvius volcano, surrounded by villages and towns and covered with fruit groves, vineyards and orchards spread over all of its aspects until near the top. The Agriculture also on the slopes of a volcano (Athina) in the island of Sicily in 1200 to a height in the fertile soil is composed of black basalt that spilled over the region during the historical periods.

The famous island of Java volcanoes rebellious and active volcanoes than virtually every volcano in the world in the amount of spills and Alloafez that flowed from them since 1500, however, we find the island full of population, it is the densest points of the world's agricultural population to the area and home to about 75 million people due to fertility as we have already volcanic soil, was established by the Department of Volcanology and function to predict volcanic eruptions and warn the population before the volcanic eruptions, which reduces the risk of their occurrence.

The Biofuels(Green Gold)

The definition of biofuels:-
Is a clean fuel production depends mainly on the conversion of biomass, whether represented in the form of grains and agricultural crops such as maize, sugar cane or in the form of oils and animal fats such as soybean oil and palm oil to ethanol or alcohol organic diesel, which means it can be used for lighting and operation of vehicles And the Department of generators.

The current biofuels:-

However, the major advantage of biofuels that will hopefully develop and expand, it also can be produced from waste, animal waste and plant residues, whether or animals and their droppings were from rice straw and sawdust, as can be produced from algae and aquatic plants and other fast-growing non-food items such as the value of jatropha and jojoba.

In terms of the possibilities and benefits of currently available sources of renewable energy, whether from the sun, wind, waves or other remains of biofuels, despite the controversy surrounding him, is the most capacity to support global energy security, and this for several reasons:-

First: - its cheap cost and the possibility of production at any time and any part of the land, because of the availability of its raw materials and is not constrained by any geographical or natural factors, a major feature missing from other renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, which are linked by the brightness of the sun, and wind energy can not be provided throughout the months of the year, and hydropower that are related to the existence waterways and coasts freely, which is not available for all countries.
Second: - The cleanliness of the source and did not harm the environment or climate and growing so in hopes of ridding the world of a large part of the current environmental problems, Vmahroqat biofuels compared with fossil fuels is characterized by the launch of less content of carbon dioxide, the leading cause of global warming, and lead , one of the toxic and carcinogenic and other chronic diseases, and the majority of oils, biofuels, degrade gradually and automatically, which means that impact negatively on the quality of the environment and the media surrounding ecosystems.

The reality of these benefits was not strange that the world is witnessing a real boom in the biofuels industry over the past years, in America's largest producers of fuel ethanol production, for example, jumped from 53 million liters in 2003 to 280 million liters in 2005, and in Brazil Sweden and Germany resulted in growth of productive capacity to its transformation to exporters of the fuel, and, some have called the proposal to establish a special assembly in these countries and all other countries exporting biofuels, the Organization of energy, particularly along the lines of OPEC oil, the world growth rate in the energy industry of biofuels about 15% annually, and is expected to increase global demand by 30% during the coming period, all indicators are very important, and illustrates the status and prosperity achieved by the industry.

Dreams biofuels promised:-

Established that the increasing demand for biofuels and the viability of this renewable source to fill the existing vacuum in energy sources will be based on the most important result: -
First - is the throne of Achah energy future green color instead of the current black. This means the other hand, fading star nations and kingdoms of many economic, as long as the oil sits Good stock and boosted its coffers, and also means other emerging high power.
Secondly - to uphold the value of agricultural land and the creation of a new renaissance of global agricultural and comprehensive, it could biofuels and increasing demand for agricultural products, contribute to the rehabilitation of many of the deserts and arid lands, and boost agricultural production around the world and expanded horizontally and vertically.

Some of the problems of biofuels expected:-

1-Agricultural land-use change and rush towards the expected conversion of productive agricultural fields of food crops to large mines for energy crops promised, and the consequent disruption of the world's agricultural biodiversity and forests and encroaching on protected green areas, increased soil erosion, and high levels of water pollution and air because of the large quantities of pesticides and fertilizers required for cultivation of energy crops especially maize.
2-For developing countries dependent on imports for its food needs of poor countries usually receive grants and international assistance in the form of food aid, these fears are no doubt will turn into nightmares spirits because of the escalating prices of food crops as a result of the growing demand for grain and agricultural products, and due to lack of the surplus of oil exporters, which in turn threatens global food security directly.
3-Escalation of the conflict on water resources due to the increasing need for water, both for use in irrigation of crops, corn and sugar cane producers of energy, or in the process of biofuel production itself, where the production cost, for example one liter of ethanol from corn is about 4 liters full of water.

Based on this expected "World Institute for Water Resources Management", in a recent study it, to face both China and India, for example in the scarce water sources by the year 2030, if they continued to present their plans to produce biofuels.

However, it can not of course be quite so gloomy or negative when talking about the production of biofuels from waste plant, animal or agricultural wastes and other wastes, because of this harmony with environmental safety and food security of the world, but this trend, will depend on in any case the development of current technology manufacturer of biofuels.

Trends Mtaxan fully represent the dreams and nightmares of this emerging industry, and separated by only a hair one minute, is in the quality of biomass to be used in the production of biofuels in the future, whether they are derived from the basic food crops such as corn, wheat, soybeans, food and all the poor people of the world, or source of animal and vegetable waste was not lacking in the environment, and human needs.