Wednesday, 24 March 2010

Petroleum Technologies(Black Gold)


The origin of oil:-


Grew up oil during the geological ages in the old forests that were breeding in some parts of the earth. Organelles, and marine plankton and aquatic plants, and the fact that organic materials under layers of earth and increase the pressure and turned over millions of years to the oil.

Installation of oil:-

During the liquidation process, the dismissal of the component chemicals in the oil by fractional distillation, a process of separation based on relative boiling points, of various materials resulting from the distillation of oil. And produce various products the order of boiling points, including light gases, such as: methane, ethane analytical chemistry methods, used mainly in quality control in oil refineries.
The oil consists of hydrocarbons and some parts of non-carbon such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, and some small quantities of metals such as vanadium, nickel, and such elements do not exceed 1% of the installation of oil.

History of Oil:-

Were drilled the first oil well in Bouhjar in the fourth century AD or earlier. The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. By the tenth century, was used bamboo pipe to connect the pipes to the sources of salt water. In the eighth century AD, it is paving new roads in Baghdad with tar, which had been brought from the candidacies of oil in this region. In the nineteenth century, began the oil fields in Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce oil economically for the first time.
The modern history of oil in 1853, discovery of the distillation of oil. Was distilled oil and get it on kerosene by Ignasi Lukasiewicz, a Polish scientist. It was the first rock oil mine is created in the Bobrka, near Krosno in southern Poland, the following year was the first refinery, the U.S. oil industry began with Edwin Drake discovered oil in 1859, near Titusvil - Pennsylvania.

By 1910 was the discovery of large oil fields in Canada, the East Indies, Iran, Venezuela, Mexico, and were developing their industrial exploitation, although even in 1955, coal was the fuel in the world, and oil began to take its place after that.
Today, about 90% of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil. Oil accounts for almost 40% of the total consumption of energy in the United States, but is only 2% of electricity generation. The value of the oil lies in the possibility to move, and the large amount of energy in it, which are the source of most vehicles, and as a feedstock in many industrial chemicals, making it one of the most important commodity in the world.

The environmental impacts of oil:-

Oil has significant environmental, social, and from accidents and routine activities that accompany the production and operation, such as seismic explosions during its production and drilling, and generation of polluting wastes. Oil extraction is costly and sometimes harmful to the environment, at the same time disturb the extraction of oil near the shores of the marine organisms and affect their environment. The oil may involve dredging, which stirs up the bottom of the sea, killing the sea plants that marine creatures need to live. Waste as well as crude oil and distillates, which spread from oil tanker accidents in a catastrophic affect on the environment of living organisms threatened with death and extinction in Alaska, the Galapagos Islands and Spain, and many other places.

Cause burning of oil in the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which contributes to global warming. Energy unit, oil produces less amounts of CO 2 from coal, but more than natural gas. Given the key role of oil and gasoline in personal and public transport, the reduction of emissions of CO 2 is one of the thorny issues in its use.
Alternatives are the sources of renewable energy already exists, although the proportion of this replacement is still small. The sun, wind and other renewable sources impacts on the environment less of oil. And these sources can replace oil in the uses that do not require huge amounts of energy, such as home heating and air-conditioning in homes and the use of fuel cell hydrogen-powered cars to move.

Is there oil in the year 2050?

The pace of current consumption, estimated at 3.5 billion tons a year working on most of depletion of oil wells in the world but the Arab States, where he is expected to produce oil as in the case of Kuwait until the year 2100. But who is also clear that the depletion of oil in many countries such as the United States, Scotland and Norway during the next thirty years will struggle industrialized nations singled Bpetrol the Middle East, will this conflict, high oil prices, which would producers promise only that the conflict may result in the same time political and social instability in those countries because of foreign interference.

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