Sunday, 2 May 2010

Food Technology

Genetically Modified Food: -
are foods derived from genetically modified organisms, has introduced some changes to the DNA of genetically modified organisms through genetic engineering.

Introduced genetically modified food for the first time in the market in the early 1990s. Are usually genetically modified food products, genetically modified plants: soybean, corn, canola, cotton seed oil, but animal products have been developed. For example, in 2006, has been modified pigs engineered to produce omega 3 fatty acids through the expression of genes, which have produced controversial, opposed by critics of GM foods for several reasons, including the awareness of safe tissue, environmental concerns and economic concerns raised by the Indeed, these organisms are subject to intellectual property law.


The tomato crop first grown commercially in genetically modified food and valuable food crops whole that have been modified to mature without softening, by the Company of California, was welcomed by consumers who bought the fruit of a hefty premium on the price of tomatoes, regular, however, prevented the production problems and competition fruit cultivars by conventional means, and a variant of Savr Flavr hoi was used by Zeneca to produce tomato paste which was sold in Europe during the summer of 1996.

Currently, there are a number of types of food where there is a genetically modified best known for: -
Cotton (cottonseed oil).
Hawaiian papayas.
Rapeseed (canola).
Sugar cane.
Sugar beet.
Sweet corn.
In addition, many micro-organisms genetically modified normally used as sources of enzymes for the manufacture of a variety of processed foods.

The growth of genetically modified crops:-

Between 1997 and 2005, the total area of land cultivated with GMOs had increased from 17,000 km 2 to 900,000 km 2.

In 2005, the largest increase in crop area planted with genetically modified crops (soybeans) in Brazil (94,000 km 2 in 2005, compared with 50,000 km 2 in 2004), there is also a continuous and rapid expansion in cotton varieties genetically modified India is expected that in 2008, 932 000 km 2 will be harvested Bt cotton in India, in 2003, the countries which has grown from 99% of GM crops in the world is the United States (63%), Argentina (21 %) and Canada (6%), Brazil (4%), China (4%), and South Africa (1%).

Crop production:-

Several studies supported by the organic farms have claimed that varieties of genetically modified plants do not produce higher crop yields from natural vegetation. However, the monograph can not prove these allegations, one study by Charles Binbroec, chief scientist at the center of organic found that the roots of soybeans genetically modified ready-made does not increase the yield, and was re-consider the report found that the roots of soybeans ready yielded 7-10% less than similar natural varieties. In addition, the same study found that farmers used herbicides (roots) in the roots-ready soybeans from 5-10 times more than the other traditional.

Co-existence and traceability:-

Does not require the United States and Canada labeling on foods genetically modified, but in other areas there, such as the European Union, Japan, Malaysia and Australia, require governments labeling so consumers can exercise choice between foods genetically modified, conventional or origin organic.

Detection is carried out by experiments on genetically modified organisms in food and feed are routinely using molecular techniques such as X min of nucleic acid, these tests are based on sorting genetic elements (such as P35S, tNos, pat, or bar) or cause-specific benchmarks for genetically modified organisms.


Proved to some scientists that there are over enough food in the world, and that the reason for the hunger crisis problems in food distribution and politics, not production, so people should not be exposed to food that may carry any amount of risk, I suppose this proof that GM food GM has risks not present in traditional food, which obviously it is not without risk.

Economic and political implications:-

Many proponents of GM crops claim that reduced use of pesticides, leading to higher crop and profitability for many farmers, including those in developing countries, there are a few licenses of genetic engineering to allow farmers in developing countries with economic growth at least for the provision of seeds for planting in the next year.

In August 2003, Zambia cut off the flow of genetically modified foods (and mostly from corn) from the United Nations World Food Programme. This left the census of victims of famine without food aid, In December 2005 the Zambian government changed its view in the face of famine, and allowed the import of genetically modified corn.
As well as the same province of crops in Venezuela, Hungary and Europe.

Property Intellectual:-

Subject of genetically modified seeds, for a license by the developers in the contracts that are written to prevent farmers from following the traditional practice, the obligation to patents for genetically modified plants, often causing the conflict, especially because of gene flow.

Future developments:-

While the practical application or efficiency in commercial production has not been fully tested, may see the next decade, a dramatic increase in the development of genetically modified products, as happened researchers to increase valuable access to genetic resources that apply to living organisms outside the scope of individual projects, we refer to that genetically modified crops by using genetic modification techniques are less vulnerable to unintended changes of crops cultivated by traditional means.

Health risks:-

In the United States, you must be a center for Food and Drug Administration Food Safety and Applied Nutrition OK on the properties of food, genetically modified foods on the basis of comparison with foods that traditional manufacturers, there was a January 2009 study, only one human nutrition, and carried out on the implications of genetically modified foods . The study included seven human volunteers who had their stomachs removed the large intestine. These volunteers eat soybeans genetically modified to determine whether the DNA of soybeans genetically modified transferred to human intestinal bacteria. Researchers have identified three of the seven volunteers were passed on the genes of soybeans genetically modified to gut bacteria.

Sensitive test in mid-1990 Pioneer Hi-Bred, testing the allergens of soybeans genetically modified to express the storage protein Brazilian seed nuts in the hope that these seeds increase the levels of methionine amino acids. These tests (tests radioallergosorbent, immunoblotting, test skin-prick) showed that the sensitivity of individuals to nut Brazilian also to the sensitivity of the new soybeans genetically modified, he Pioneer to commercial varieties that contain a protein that Brazil nuts will not develop, since it is likely that the protein is dramatically sensitivity .