Monday, 1 March 2010

Technologies of modern agriculture

Agriculture refers to the production of food and goods through agriculture and forest industry, agriculture is the key to development that led to the emergence of civilization, with animal husbandry.
Agriculture includes many types of disciplines and techniques, including ways to expand the land suitable for the growth of plants by digging canals and other forms of irrigation. Cultivation of crops on arable land for agriculture and rural grazing of livestock on rangeland remain the basis for agriculture.

Modern agriculture and plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological progress has increased sharply from planting crops, and at the same time have caused environmental damage and wide-ranging and negative effects on human health.
The most important agricultural products can be grouped in general in food, fiber, fuel, raw materials, medicines, stimulants, and a variety of grooming products or products of crop species. In 2000, the plants used for the development of biofuels, bio-medical materials, bio-plastics.
Since 7000 BC, and reached small-scale agriculture to Egypt. Since 7000 BC, at least sub-continent India has seen growing wheat and barley.


In the Middle Ages:-

During the Middle Ages, the farmers, j North Africa and the Near East to the development and dissemination of agricultural technologies including irrigation systems based on the principles of hydraulic and Hydrostatic, the use of devices such as waterwheels, and the use of water-raising machines, dams and reservoirs, has invented a three-field system of crop rotation during the Middle Ages to the improvement large valuable agricultural efficiency.

Modern:-

After 1492, occurred the global exchange of the previous local crops and animal breeds. The main crops involved in this exchange tomatoes, corn, potatoes, cassava, cocoa and tobacco, which are transmitted from the New World to the Old World, and several varieties of wheat, spices, coffee, cane sugar that is transferred from the Old World to the New World. The most important export animals of the ancient world to the new world are horses and dogs.
The issue of increasing agricultural production of strategic crops (cereals) at the various kinds of fundamentals, important in the development of the significant pillars of the national economy and bridge the gap between the local and global markets, reducing import costs and reduce financial dependence on other countries, hence the need to be planning for advanced technology in this area contribute to to increase local agricultural production in this area and improve the nutritional level.
Food security is important pillar of national security in any country and it is linked to people's lives and health hence the governments responsibility to provide food, either through local agricultural production or import.

Genetic engineering in agriculture:-

After it has been the development of mechanical harvesting of tomatoes in early 1960, the agricultural scientists cultivate tomatoes genetically modified to be more resistant to mechanical handling. Recently, genetic engineering is being used in different parts of the world, to create a crop other useful features.

Modified crops genetically engineered to tolerate herbicides:-

Characterized by the seeds of pesticide Raundb Reddy said with Jane resistant to herbicides was grown for its own genome, which makes plants able to withstand exposure to Gelaiovusat Roundup Ready is a trading name of the product based on Algelaiovusat, a general, non-selective Herbicide used to kill weeds. Reddy Ruandab allow seeds to farmers to grow crops that can be sprayed with Gelaiovusat to control weeds without harming crops resistance. Used crop herbicide-tolerant of the farmers in all parts of the world. Today, 92% of the area of soybeans in the United States is cultivated with plants genetically modified herbicide-tolerant.

Genetically modified crops for insect resistance:-

Other crops genetically modified crops used by farmers include resistance to insects, which have genes from soil bacteria Bacillus Teringensis that produces a substance toxic to certain insects; protect crop plants resistant to insect damage from insects, one of these crops is the Starlink corn. The other plant is insect-resistant cotton, which represents 63% of the area of cotton from the U.S.

The costs and benefits of genetically modified crops:-

Genetic engineering of plants have proved to be controversial. Many of the issues that revolve around food security, and environmental impacts have risen on the applications of genetically modified crops. For example, organisms are genetically modified questioned by some ecologists and economists from genetically modified crops are concerned with applications of genetically modified crops and seeds such as final, a genetic modification to create sterile seeds. The final seed is currently under strong international opposition and faces ongoing efforts of a global ban was to prevent farmers who use seed to save seeds for subsequent crops, which forces farmers to buy new seeds every year. As the seed-saving is a traditional practice for many farmers in both developing and developed countries, legally and genetically modified seeds force farmers to change the practices of seed-saving and buy new seeds every year.

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